Physiography of India

Physiography of INDIA

This post will cover
1.All about Himalayas
2.Northern plains
3.Peninsular plateau
4.Coastal Plains


BIODIVERSITY IN THE HIMALAYAS




Animal Kingdom can be categorized into:-
1 Palearctic
Ø   Includes colder region of the Asian Continent
Ø   Animals found in this region have a lot of fur on their body and are aclamatized to survial in colder climate
2 Oriental
Ø   Includes the lower part of Asia
Ø   Animals here are adapted to staying in tropical climate
3 Nearctic
4 Ethiopian
5 Australasian
6 Neotropical

Plant Kingdom in the Himalayas can be cactegorized into:-
1 Boreal
Ø   Found in coniferrous regions of the world e.g. Canada
2 Paleo tropical
Ø   This type of vegetation is found in tropical regions

Animal & Plant Species



H
imalayas have both types of regions, Palearctic on the northern  side  and  Oriental on the southern side.



Ø   Animals founds are Swamp Deer, Wild Buffallo, Tiger, Snow Leopard and Hangul Deer
Ø   Plants species found are Pine Tree, Deodar Tree, Willow Tree



NORTHERN PLAINS












Ø   The regions outlined in the map given above (namely Uttar Pradesh, areas of Pakistan, Bihar, parts of
Bengal, Parts of Bangladesh and part of Assam) is known as Northern Plains.

Ø   Three river systems form these plains. These are:-
o Indus River System
o Ganga River System
o Brahmaputra River System
Ø   Doab is a region which lies between two rivers. These doabs are the most fertile regions due to the
presence of Khadar (New Alluvium Soil)
Ø   In historical times Northern Plains have had high population density. Even today the population numbers are the highest in this region due to the fertile nature of the land.

PENINSULAR PLATEAU

Ø   The Peninsular Plateau is also known as the Deccan Plateau. It comprises of most part of southern portion of the nation.
Ø   The plateau ascends 100 meters in the north, ascending further to over 1,000 meters to the south, creating an elevated triangle situated in the well-known downhill-moving triangle of the seashore of the Indian subcontinent.
Ø   The Deccan Plateau stretches over eight states in India and covers a broad variety of environments, encompassing the majority of the Central and South Indian regions.
Ø   The Deccan Plateau is lying in the middle of three mountain ranges; the Eastern Ghats creates its eastern border and the Western Ghats its western border. Each of the two mountain ranges ascends from their particular adjacent seaward plains and almost joins at the southernmost point of India.
Ø   Karbi Anglong Plateau in Meghalaya is said to be a part of Peninsular Plateau earlier. It is separated from the rest of the peninsular plateau by a fault called Malda Fault.
Ø   Important ranges of the plateau are:-
o Vindhya Range o Satpura Range o Mahdeo Hills
o Nallamala Hills
o Javadi Hills

INDIAN DESSERT







Ø   The Indian Desert of Rajasthan is situated partly in India and partly in Pakistan

Ø   Bordering the desert on four sides are, Indus plains to the west, Aravalli Range to the southeast, Rann of Kutch to the south, and Punjab plains to the north and northeast.
Ø   It is also known as the "Great Indian Desert" or Thar Dessert and it covers an area of approximately
77,000 square miles (200,000 square km).
Ø   The Arohi region located to the eastern side of the Aravalli mountain ranges is a fertile region.
Ø   Thar Dessert is also known as Marusthali.
Ø   Animal species found in this region are – The great India Bustard, Camels etc.
Ø   Plants found in this region are Various kinds of Cactus, Babul, Kikar etc.
Ø   Indira Gandhi Canal provides water to the northern part of Rajasthan

COASTAL PLAINS

Ø   Coastal plains are characterized by an area of flat low lying land that is situated adjacent to a water body often a sea or ocean.
Ø   Coastal plains are separated from the interior of the larger land mass by other unique features.
Ø In India Coastal plains are divided into Eastern Coastal plains and Western Coastal Plains

Eastern Coastal Plains

Ø   The eastern coastal plains are located on a wide stretch of land between the Eastern Ghats of India and the Bay of Bengal.
Ø   This stretch of land stretches to 120 km in width at parts. The eastern coastal plains extend from Tamil
Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north.

Ø   The eastern coastal plains have rivers draining into them and river deltas also occupy the valleys.
Ø   The region of the eastern coastal plains is an expansive area and is divided into six regions. The six regions of the eastern coastal plains of India are the Mahanadi Delta, the Southern Andhra Pradesh Plain, the Krishna Godavari deltas, the Kanyakumari Coast, the Coromandel and the Sandy Coastal regions.
Ø   The eastern coastal plains are characterized by a temperature that exceeds 30 degee Celsius and also experiences high levels of humidity.
Ø   The rainfall of the region is also abundant in the region with rainfall amounts in excess of 1000mm annually with the amount usually approaching 3000mm.
Ø   Eastern coastal plains are subject to both northeast and southwest monsoon rains when these storms are in season.

Western Coastal Plains

Ø   The western coastal plain of India in contrast to the eastern coastal plain is located on a narrow strip of land.
Ø   The western coastal plains are located in the west of India between the Western Ghats and the
Arabian Sea.
Ø   They extend from Gujarat in the north down 50 km to the south in Kerala and are characterized by numerous backwaters and rivers that flow into the region.
Ø   These rivers that flow into the region lead to the forming of estuaries that are found in the western coastal plains of India.
Ø   The storm activity here is considerably less than on the eastern coastal plains. The maximum storm
activity on the western coastal plains occurs in the month of March.




Ø   The western coastal plains are smaller than their eastern counterpart and the region is divided into three  parts.  The  western  coastal  plains  are  divided  into  the  regions  of  Konkan,  Kanara,  and the Malabar Coast.

ISLANDS

1 Andaman & Nicobar Islands
2 Lakshadweep Islands

Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Ø   Indira Point The southernmost point of India
Ø   The only active volcano present in India is in Barren Islands which is a part of Andaman & Nicobar
Islands
Ø   Many theories say that these islands are extensions of Arakan Yoma Mountain ranges present in
Myanmar.
Ø   10 degree channel separates the Andaman Islands from the Nicobar Islands.

Lakshadweep Islands
Ø   These are coral island group
Ø   Minicoy Island is the largest island group that is present in the Lakshadweep
Ø   Minicoy Island is separated from the other islands by the 9 degree channel
Ø   8 degree channel separates Minicoy Islands from Maldives

Sai Praveen

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