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Climatic Zones

Climatic Zones of the World

Climatic Zones

The world has several climatic zones. These are summarized on the map below.

1. Tropical Moist Climates (Af)

– This climate is located upto 50 to 100 latitudes on both the hemispheres.
– The zone is subjected to seasonal shifting due to northward and southward movement of Sun.
– The tropical climate is characterized by two major properties – uniformly high temperature throughout the year and uniformly adequate rainfall throughout the year by convectional rainfall. The total annual rainfall is often more than 250 cm.
– Humidity is between 77 and 88%.
– The equatorial climate is found in – The Amazon Basin in South America, Congo Basin in Africa, Guinea coast in Africa, Java, Sumatra, Malaysia etc.
– The climates on eastern sides of continents are influenced by maritime tropical air masses. These air masses flow out from the moist western sides of oceanic high-pressure cells, and bring lots of summer rainfall. The summers are warm and very humid. It also rains a lot in the winter.
– This region accounts for the largest number of plant species due to high temperature and high rainfall.
– This climatic region is characterized by broad leaf evergreen dense forests comprising mahogany, rosewood, bamboos, sandal etc.
2. Wet-Dry Tropical Climates (Aw) savanna
– This type of climate is located between 50 – 200 latitudes on either side of the equator.
– This climatic type is bounded by tropical rainforest climate towards the equator and by dry climate towards the poles.
– The Savanna type is found in the southern continents and all the regions are to the south of the Tropic of Cancer.
These are –
a) South America: Cuba, Jamaica and the islands in the Pacific.
b) Africa: The Sudan, large parts of the newly formed Republics – Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Chad and also in Ghana, Togo, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Angola and Uganda.
c) Australia: The northern region and Queensland.
– The Savanna climate is characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, mean high temperature throughout the year and high insolation.
– There is sunshine for 13 to 14 hours and humidity is low, the air is hot, dry and dusty.
– The average monthly temperature during the dry season ranges between 22°C and 37°C.
– Coastal regions on the windward side of the mountains get heavier rain. Rainfall decreases as one goes either towards north (in the Northern Hemisphere) or towards south (in the Southern Hemisphere).
– The Savanna vegetation marks the transition from the dense equatorial forests, where the rainy season lasts practically throughout the year, and the semi-desert and deserts where the dry season lasts practically throughout the year.
– The seasonal rain allows only grass to grow. These are therefore the natural grasslands of the world. Rainfall is not sufficient to support tall trees but grass grows well and one variety known as the elephant grass grows up to four and a half metres.
– Trees occur more as one goes towards the Equator.
3. Hot Desert Climate
– This type of climate is located between the latitudinal belt of 150 – 300 in both the hemispheres.
– The arid deserts lie close to the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn in the western margins of continents.
– The climatic zone lies in – The Sahara, the Arabia, the Thar, Mohave and Sonoran (South Western U.S.A.), Kalahari and Namib (South Western Africa), Simpson, Gibson, Great Sandy (Australia)
– The climate is dominated by the subsidence of air masses and marked stability of the sub-tropical anticyclones and hence nearly rainless. The highest temperatures in the world are recorded here (Azazia 58.7°C). The greatest daily ranges of temperature of (15°C) are seen here.
– These areas receive the lowest annual rainfall (12 to 15 cm). Cold currents also influence the climate on the western margins of continents. The aridity is intensified because of these currents which chill the air and further stabilize it.
– The vegetation found here is cactus, thorny plants, shrubs, herbs.
4. Steppe Climate
– This type of climatic zone is found between 40° and 55° North and South. They lie far away from the influence of the sea, in the heart of continents.
– The areas are – Prairies (North America), Pampas (South America), Velds (South Africa), Downs (Australia) and Steppes (Russia)
– The temperature in summer varies from 18°C to 24°C and in winter from – 4°C to 2°C. The range of temperature is large. Rainfalls in spring and early summer and vary between 23 cm. and 65 cm. It is of convectional type but very light.
– This dry climate exists in the interior regions of the North American and Eurasian continents. Moist ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. These mountain ranges also trap polar air in winter, making winters very cold. Summers are warm to hot.
– Short grass grows everywhere. Trees appear only on the slopes of mountains.
5. Monsoon Climate
– Monsoon climate is generally related to those areas which register complete seasonal reversal of wind direction and are associated with tropical deciduous forests. The region lies between 10°N to 30°N and 10°S to 30°S latitude.
– Climatic zone areas are – Eastern Brazil (S. America), Central American countries, Natal coast (South Africa), India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, South East Asia including Burma, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines etc., Parts of East Africa including Malagasy, North Australia.
– The annual average temperature is about 26°C and the annual range is about 3°C. The maximum temperatures occur in May before the summer rainfall maximum in June and July. The annual rainfall amounts to about 300 cm.
– The characteristic feature of this type of climate is a reversal in the wind direction with the change of season.
– During the summer season, the wind is on shore, bring large amount of moisture to the land surface. Rainfall is both orographic and cyclonic in nature.
– In winter season the wind is off shore and hence is cool and dry. But some parts like Madras coast get rain during this season because winds are on shore there.
6. Mediterranean Climate:
– This type of climate has developed between 300 – 400 latitudes in both the hemispheres.
– This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up to five months.
– This climatic region includes European, Asiatic and African lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
– This climate owes its origin to the seasonal shifting of wind and pressure belts due to northward and southward migration of the sun.
– In winter they are under the influence of westerlies which are moisture laden thus brings rainfall in winters whereas they come under the influence of subtropical high pressure belt in summers thus associated with anti cyclonic conditions.
– Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasons. Sclerophyll plants range in formations from forests, to woodland, and scrub. Eucalyptus forests cover most of the chaparral biome in Australia.
– Fires occur frequently in Mediterranean climate zones.
7. Taiga Climate 
·         Temperature Range: lows; -25 °C (-14 °F), highs; 16 °C (60 °F).·         Average Annual Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in).·         Latitude Range: 50° – 70° N and S.·         Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador; Eurasia, from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.
– This climate type has been named after the coniferous forest cover of the same name found in the region. the region extends from 50-55 degrees to 60-70 degrees latitudes in northern hemisphere.
– It stretches as an almost continuous belt across southern Canada, northern Europe and Russia. The Tundra region lies on the north and the Temperate Grasslands on the south.
– The areas are – Southern Alaska, Southern Canada, parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Northern Russia, Northern Siberia, Sakhalin Island.
– Winters are very cold and severe from 6 to 7 months with temperatures below freezing. In this region lies Verkhoyansk the “cold pole” colder than the Arctic region.
– Summers are short lasting for 3 or 4 months but the days are long; at 60°N the sun shines for over 18 hours.
– Rainfall varies from 25 to 100cm. There is more rainfall near the coast. Most of the rain comes from cyclonic weather. It falls throughout the year but maximum in summer in frequent showers. In winter it takes the form of snow, which may remain, on the ground from 5 to 7 months.
– The vegetation associated with this climate type is the soft-wood coniferous forests.
8. Tundra Climate
·         Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F).·         Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in).·         Latitude Range: 60° – 75° N.·         Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean.
– The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate.
– The winter season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.

DPSP/Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Key Highlights

·         Part-IV of the constitution – Art. 36 to 51.
·         Borrowed from the Constitution of Ireland.
·         These directives provide the ideals which the Union and the State governments must keep in mind while formulating a policy or passing a law. The DPSPs constitute a comprehensive social and economic objective for a modern democratic state.
·         While fundamental rights provide the political pillar of Indian democracy, its social and economic pillars are provided by DPSPs.
·         Non Justiciable in nature –
o   FRs are Justiciable rights but DPSPs are non-justiciable rights.
o   Although DPSPs were no less important than fundamental rights yet they entailed financial back-up to implement them.
o   Since the Indian state had and still has limited economic capacity, making DPSPs justiciable would have put the state in a tight situation. This fact explains why DPSPs were deliberately made non-justiciable.
o   Despite being non-justiciable importance of DPSPs has been stated in Art. 37 which declares that although the DPSPs are non-justiciable, they should be considered fundamental in the governance of the country.
What are the different categories of DPSPs?
Socialistic Principles:
a) Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens
b) Fair distribution of wealth and material resources among all classes and to prevent concentration of wealth in a few hands
c) Equal pay for equal work for men as well as women; and
d) To secure just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
Gandhian Principles
a) To organize village Panchayats and to endowing them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government;
b) To promote cottage industries on individual or co-operative basis in rural areas;
c) The safeguard and promote the educational and economic interests or the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes;
d) To bring about the prohibition and consumption of intoxicating liquor; and
e) To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and in particular prohibit slaughter of cows.
Liberal Principles
a) To secure uniform and liberal code of law for all citizens of India;
b) To separate the judiciary from the executive;
c) to raise the standard of nutrition and standard of living of the people;
d) To protect monuments of historical and national interest;
e) Equal justice and free legal aid to economically backward classes;
f) participation of workers in management of organizations engaged in any industry; and
g) Promotion and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
Provisions relating to be International Peace and Security:
a) To promote international peace and security;
b) To maintain just and honorable relations between nations
c) To foster respect for international law and treaty obligations;
d) To encourage settlement of disputes by arbitration.
Article Wise Explanation of DPSPS
 Art. 36: This defines the term state in the same way as Art.12
• Art.37: This declares the importance of DPSPs. It states that though DPSPs are not justiciable yet they shall be considered fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to include these directives in their policies.
• Art. 38: This directs the state to create a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. This social order must provide social, economic and political justice. Under 44th Amendment, clause (2) has been added to Art.38 which directs the state to minimize inequalities in income, to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities.
• Art. 39: This is a very important article containing a number of directives which go a long way to establish what is known as welfare state in India. It directs the states to secure the following:-
– Adequate means of livelihood for citizens both men and women.
– Control and ownership of the material resources of the community to be distributed in such a manner that it serves the common good.
– The operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
– Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
– Health and strength of workers, men & women and children are not abused and the citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter Avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
– Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and their childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and moral and material abandonment (added by 42nd Amendment, 1976).
– Thus, Art. 39 is very wide in its scope. It requires the state to ensure adequate means of livelihood, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work and protection of children and labour. Specially Art. 39 (b & c) lay the foundations of a welfare state.
 Art. 39-A: Added to the Constitution by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article requires the state to provide for equal justice and free legal aid. In pursuance of this article, Parliament has passed the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.
 Art. 40: This directs the state to organize village panchayats and confer adequate powers to them so that they can function as units of self-government. Accordingly, Parliament has passed 73rd Amendment, 1992 which has introduced panchayats in part IX in the Constitution.
• Art. 41: Under this Article the state is directed to provide right to work, to education and to public assistance subject to its economic capacity.
• Art. 42: Under this article, the state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The state has enacted laws such as the industrial Disputes Act, Minimum Wages Act, Maternity Relief Act, etc., to implement this article.
• Art. 43: This article directs the state to make efforts to secure living wages and organize cottage industries in rural areas.
• Art. 43-A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article calls for legislation by the state to ensure workers participation in the management of industries.
• Art. 44: This article contains a very important directive, viz., implementation of a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout India. The state is supposed to take steps to establish a Uniform Civil code for all the citizens irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Unfortunately, despite this provision in the Constitution, there has been no implementation of uniform civil code since the adoption of the Constitution. A uniform civil code implies that persons belonging to different religions and beliefs would be governed by same set of laws in matters of marriage, divorce, adoption, succession to property, etc
• Art. 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children till the age of 14 years. However, this article has been amended by 86th Amendment Act, 2002 which has inserted Art. 21A in the constitution making right to education a fundamental right for all children between 6-14 years of age. Now Art. 45 direct the state to make provisions for early childhood care and education for all children till the age of 6 years.
• Art. 46: This article seeks to protect the educational and economic interests of SC/STs and other weaker sections. A number of educational facilities have been extended to SC/STs in pursuance of this article.
• Art. 47: The state has been directed by this article to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. This also includes prohibition of liquor and intoxicating drugs.
• Art. 48: Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The state under this article has to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. This also includes prohibition of killing of cows, calves and other milch and draught cattle.
• Art. 48A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article enjoins on the state task of protecting and improving environment, forests and wild life. A number of acts relating to protecting the environment, forests and wild life have been enacted.
• Art. 49: This article obligates the state to protect monuments and places of national importance.
 Art. 50: Separation of judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state. This article provides that there should be a separate judicial service free from executive control in the states. This article has been implemented by amending the CrPC in 1973 under which the judicial magistrates are being appointed separately in the states and they are accountable to the High Courts and not to the state executive.
• Art. 51: This article requires the state to promote international peace and security, maintain good relations between nations and respect international laws.
DPSPs at Work
A number of legislations have been enacted by both Central and State governments to implement various directive principles.
·         Art. 39(b) – Agriculture Land Ceiling Acts were passed. All these are relatable to
·         Art. 40 – Under 73rd and 74th Amendments, powers have been conferred on Zilla Parishads, Municipalities and Panchayats.
·         Art. 39 (b) and (c) – In 1971 fourteen banks were nationalized. During the seventies many industries were taken over by the government.
·         Art. 39 (d) – Legislation guaranteeing equal pay for equal work is relatable to.
·         Art. 43 – The 26th Amendment of the Constitution made in 1971 abolished the privy purses, which were granted to the Rulers of Indian States. Various Boards and Commissions have been established by the State. Some of them are Khaadi and Village industries Commission, All India Handicraft Board. All India Handloom Board, Silk Board and Coir Board.
·         Art. 48 – Many States have enacted laws to prohibit slaughter of cows and bullocks.
·         Arts. 41, 42, 43A – The numerous Acts pertaining to labour, e.g., Minimum Wages Act, Workmen Compensation Act, Maternity Benefit Act, Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, The Factories Act etc.
·         Art. 48A – The Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Environmental Pollution Acts, The Forest Act, and Wild Life Protection Act passed by the Parliament.
DPSPs in Other Parts of Indian Constitution (Not in Part IV)
The following Directives are also non-justiciable:
• Art. 350 A: Enjoins every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at primary stage to children of linguistic minorities.
• Art 351 A: Enjoins the Union to promote the spread of Hindi language so that if may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.
• Art 355 A: Claims of Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with affairs of Union or of a State.
DPSP vs. Fundamental Rights


• It should be remembered that the Preamble, the FRs and the DPSPs are all integral parts of the same constitutional edifice.
• They are all equally important and have to be read with each other.
• The emphasis in the entire scheme of the Constitution under the headings of the Preamble, the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles is on building an egalitarian society and on the concept of socio-economic justice.
• The Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles together constituted the soul of the Constitution.

Indelible Ink

Indelible Ink

Electoral ink, indelible ink, electoral stain or phosphoric ink is a semi-permanent ink or dye that is applied to the forefinger (usually) of voters during elections in order to prevent electoral fraud such as double voting. It is an effective method for countries where identification documents for citizens are not always standardised or institutionalized. The most common election ink used worldwide was invented by Filiberto Vázquez Davila, a Mexican biochemical engineer.
Indelible ink is used as an effective security feature to prevent double voting in elections or the case may be (like Indian government has structure to use this ink for curbing the corruption and double entry in demonetization). Ink is normally applied to the left hand index finger, especially to the cuticle where it is almost impossible to remove quickly. Ink may be applied in a variety of ways, depending on circumstance and preference.
This ink typically stays on skin for 72–96 hours, lasting 2 to 4 weeks on the fingernail and cuticle area. The election ink used in India puts a permanent mark on the cuticle area which disappears only with the growth of new nail. It can take up to 4 months for the stain to be replaced completely by new nail growth.
Electoral stain typically contains a pigment for instant recognition; a silver nitrate which stains the skin on exposure to ultraviolet light, leaving a mark that is impossible to wash off and is only removed as external skin cells are replaced. Industry standard electoral inks contain 10%, 14% or 18% silver nitrate solution, depending on the length of time the mark is required to be visible. Although normally water-based, electoral stains occasionally contain a solvent such as alcohol to allow for faster drying, especially when used with dipping bottles, which may also contain a biocide to ensure bacteria aren’t transferred from voter to voter.

National eHealth Authority (NeHA)

National eHealth Authority (NeHA)

National eHealth Authority (NeHA) as a promotional, regulatory and standards setting organization to guide and support India’s journey in e-Health and consequent realization of benefits of ICT intervention in Health sector in an orderly way.
The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) had recommended in 2008 formation of National Health Information Authority (NHIA) to support implementation on e-Health.
NeHA will be responsible for development of an Integrated Health Information System (including Telemedicine and mHealth) in India, while collaborating with all the stakeholders, viz., healthcare providers, consumers, healthcare technology industries, and policymakers. It will also be responsible for enforcing the laws & regulations relating to the privacy and security of the patients health information & records.
Core Functions of the NeHA:
• Policy and Promotion
• Standards Development
• Legal Aspects including Regulation
• Setting up and Maintaining Health Repositories, Electronic Health Exchanges and National Health Information Network.
• Capacity Building
Aims to formulate NeHA:
• To guide the adoption of e-Health solutions at various levels and areas in the country in a manner that meaningful aggregation of health and governance data and storage/exchange of electronic health records happens at various levels in a cost-effective manner.
• To facilitate integration of multiple health IT systems through health information exchanges.
• To oversee orderly evolution of state-wide and nationwide Electronic Health Record Store/Exchange System that ensures that security, confidentiality and privacy of patient data is maintained and continuity of care is ensured.
• Formulation of policies, strategies and implementation plan blue-print (National eHealth Policy / Strategy) for coordinated eHealth adoption in the country by all players; regulation and accelerated adoption of e-health in the country by public and private care providers and other players in the ecosystem; to establish a network of different institutions to promote eHealth and Tele-medicine/remote healthcare/virtual healthcare and such other measures;
• Formulation and management of all health informatics standards for India; Laying down data management, privacy & security policies, standards and guidelines in accordance with statutory provisions.
• To promote setting up of state health records repositories and health information exchanges (HIEs).
• To deal with privacy and confidentiality aspects of Electronic Health Records (EHR).

E-pashuhaat portal

E-pashuhaat portal

The portal will act as a single online e-trading market platform, including availability of bovine germplasm. It will enable the farmers to buy bovine animals, frozen semen and embryo. The Union Agriculture & Farmers Welfare launched e-pashuhaat portal to connect farmers and breeders of bovine animals.
About the portal:
• e-pashuhaat portal will connect farmers with breeders- State, Central, Co-operative, Milk Federations, and private agencies.
• It will provide information related to certification of the animal, breeding, its picture, volume of milk given by the cow etc.
• It will facilitate farmers to purchase advanced breed of bovine animals at a reasonable price as per as their requirements.
• It will provide, certified picture of animals, its parents information, breeding, volume of milk given by bovine animal information.
• Besides, it will provide information related to animal fodder varieties, its volume and price. It will have real time authentic certified information on availability of germplasm.
Importance of the portal:
• Earlier there was no single authentic organised market for animals. Information like pet cattle, trading of bovine animals was not available in any other forum or platform in the country.
• This portal is likely to help fill in the vacuum. Since dairying activity is a major supplementary source of income for farmers.
• The portal will play important role in increasing income of framers from animal rearing for achieving the goal of doubling farmers’ income by 2022.
• It establishes links between ‘farmer to farmer’ and ‘farmer to institutes’. Thus, it minimises the involvement of middlemen.
• It will create a comparative Farm Network that will facilitate farmers to exchange local knowledge and resources.


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