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Currents/Importance of Ocean

Ocean Currents and Tides Ocean Resources

Ocean Currents

Ocean current has been defined as the persistent, dominantly horizontal flow of ocean water. It is the general movement of a mass of oceanic water in a definite direction which is more or less similar to water streams (rivers).
Ocean currents flow for great distances, and together, create the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of the Earth’s regions. Primarily, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel.
1) Planetary Winds – The water beneath the wind forms surface water current. The pushing action of these winds makes the water flow in definite direction.
2) Rotation of Earth – The earth rotates from the west to the east. As a result of the Coriolis force, the permanent winds are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere; consequently the ocean currents are also deflected in similar manner. The Counter equatorial Currents are also result of the rotation of the earth.
3) Configuration of Coastline – The direction & shape of the coastline modify the ocean currents.
4) Ocean water temperature – The temperature of ocean water decreases from equator towards the poles. The density of water is low in the equatorial region due to high temperature. The lighter water of the equatorial region moves towards the colder and denser polar areas and vice versa.
5) Ocean water salinity – Ocean currents on the water surface are generated from the areas of low salinity to the areas of high salinity. For example, ocean currents flow from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and from the Arabian Sea to the Red sea. Water in the polar region is cold and heavy, so it sinks and flows towards the equator.
1. The general movement of the currents in the northern hemisphere is clockwise and in the southern hemisphere, anti-clockwise except for those currents seen in the northern Indian Ocean. Here, the direction of the currents changes in response to the seasonal change in the direction of monsoon winds.
2. In the lower latitudes, the warm currents flow on the eastern shores and cold on the western shores. The situation is reversed in the higher latitudes—the warm currents move along the western shores and the cold currents along the eastern shores.
3. The warm currents move towards the cold seas and cool currents towards the warm seas.
4. The currents flow not only at the surface but also below the sea surface. Such currents are caused by the differences in salinity and temperature.


The oceanic current systems in the Indian Ocean are affected by the contour of the landmass and monsoon winds. The consistent system of ocean currents cannot be developed in Indian Ocean as it is surrounded by the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Australia on three sides. The characteristic feature of the currents in the northern Indian Ocean is that there occurs change in flow direction twice a year due to north-east and south-west monsoon winds.
North-East Monsoon CurrentWarm CurrentImportant for sea-trade, cultural interaction
South-West Monsoon CurrentWarm Current

• Tide is the regular rise and fall of water level in the world’s ocean, resulting from the gravitational attraction that is exerted upon the earth by the Moon and the Sun. The gravitational & centrifugal forces together play an important role in formation of tides.
• The tide-producing force of the Moon is slightly more than twice that of the Sun. The times and amplitude of tides at any given locale are influenced by the alignment of the Sun and Moon, by the pattern of tides in the deep ocean, by the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry.
• Most coastal areas, with some exceptions, experience two high tides and two low tides every lunar day. Unlike a solar day, a lunar day is 24 hours and 50 minutes. The lunar day is 50 minutes longer than a solar day because the moon revolves around the Earth in the same direction that the Earth rotates around its axis.
• Because the Earth rotates through two tidal “bulges” every lunar day, coastal areas experience two high and two low tides every 24 hours and 50 minutes. High tides occur 12 hours and 25 minutes apart. It takes six hours and 12.5 minutes for the water at the shore to go from high to low, or from low to high.
• There are 2 types of tides
1) Spring tide – Spring tides are produced when sun, moon and earth are in a straight line. They occur twice every month during full moon and new moon.
2) Neap Tides – Neap tides are produced when sun, moon and earth are in such a position so as to form a right angle. They too occur twice during a month.
• The difference in height between the high tide and the low tide is called the tidal range. A horizontal movement of water often accompanies the rising and falling of the tide. This is called the tidal current.
• According to the characteristics of the tidal pattern tides are classified as follows:
1) In the Diurnal Tide, only a single high and single low water occur each tidal day. Tides of the diurnal type occur along the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Tonkin, and in a few other places.
2) In the Semidiurnal Tide, there are two high and two low waters each tidal day, with relatively small differences in the respective highs and lows. Tides on the Atlantic coast of the United States are of the semidiurnal type.
3) In the Mixed Tide, the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations are both important factors and the tide is characterized by a large inequality in the high water heights, low water heights, or in both. There are usually two high and two low waters each day, but occasionally the tide may become diurnal. Such tides are prevalent along the Pacific coast of the United States and in many other parts of the world.
Importance of Tides
1. Tidal flows are of great importance in navigation. Tidal heights are very important, especially harbours near rivers and within estuaries having shallow ‘bars’ at the entrance, which prevent ships and boats from entering into the harbour.
2. Fish may concentrate during ebb tides. Commercial fishermen follow the tides and learn to fish during levels of highest concentration to improve their economic investment and to make more efficient use of their time.
3. Tides and tidal currents affect the weather by stirring the ocean waters. The tides and tidal currents mix arctic water that can’t absorb lots of sunlight with warmer topic water that does. The stirring produces more predictable and habitable climate conditions and balances temperatures on the planet.
4. Tidal energy is non-polluting, reliable and predictable. Tidal barrages, undersea tidal turbines – like wind turbines but driven by the sea – and a variety of machines harnessing undersea currents are under operation world over. Unlike wind and waves, tidal currents are entirely predictable.

Council of Minister/Prime Minister – roles/Other Executives

Union and State CoM PM and CM Other State and Union Executives

Council of Minister

Constitutional Provisions
1. Article 74-Council of Ministers to aid and advice Presiden
a. There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President
b. The advice tendered by Ministers to the President shall not be inquired into in any court
2. Article 75-Other Provisions as to Ministers
a. The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
b. The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha. The provision was added by the 91st Amendment Act of 2003. A member of either house of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister. This provision was also added by the 91st Amendment Act of 2003.
i. The ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.
ii. The council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
iii. The President shall administer the oaths of office and secrecy to a minister.
iv. A minister who is not a member of the Parliament (either house) for any period of six consecutive months shall cease to be a minister.
3. The salaries and allowances of ministers shall be determined by the Parliament Article 77-
Conduct of Business of the Government of India
a. All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
b. Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President.
c. The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business.
4. Article 78-Duties of Prime Minister
a. To communicate to the President all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation
b. If the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council.
Nature of Advice by Ministers
The 42nd and 44th Constitutional Amendment Acts have made the advice binding on the President.
• Further, the nature of advice tendered by ministers to the President cannot be enquired by any court.
• This provision emphasises the intimate and the confidential relationship between the President and the ministers.
• In 1971, the Supreme Court held that?even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha, the council of ministers does not cease to hold office.
• Article 74 is mandatory and, therefore, the president cannot exercise the executive power without the aid and advice of the council of ministers.
Strength of the Council
• The Constitution did not lay down the number of ministers that may constitute the Council of Ministers.
• However, a ceiling has been put on the strength of the Council of Ministers both in the union as well as in the states by 91st Amendment Act, 2003.
• Total number of ministers including the PM shall not exceed 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha in case of the Union Council of Ministers and 15% of the state legislative assembly in case of state Council of Minister.
• All the members of the Council of Ministers do not belong to the same rank. The constitution does not classify minister into different ranks but in practice 4 ranks have come to be recognized.
– Cabinet Ministers – He has the right to be present and participate in every meeting of the Cabinet. For proclamation of an emergency under Art. 352 the advice must come from the Prime Minister and other ministers of cabinet rank.
– Minister of State with independent charge- He is a Minister of State who does not work under a Cabinet Minister. When any matter concerning his department is on the agenda of the Cabinet, he is invited to attend the meeting.
– Minister of State – He is a Minister who does not have independent charges of any department and works under a Cabinet Minister. The work to such minister is allotted by his Cabinet Minister.
– Deputy Minister – He is a minister who works under a Cabinet Minster or a minister of State with independent charge. The work to him is allotted by the minister under whom he is working.
• The Prime Minister allocates portfolios to the Cabinet Ministers and Ministers of the State with independent charges. The other ministers are allocated work by their respective Cabinet Ministers.
• Ministers may be chosen from the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. A minister who is member of one House has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of the other House also.
• A minister is allowed to vote only in the House of which he is a member.
Appointment of a Non legislator as a minister
• Art. 75(5) – A person who is not qualified to become a member of a legislature cannot be appointed a minister.
• A person who is not a member of either House may also be appointed as a minister. He can continue as a minister only for six months.
• Because, that is the limit fixed by Art. 75(5), if he desires to continue as minister he has to become a member of any one of the Houses of Parliament before the expiration of the period of 6 months.
Collective Responsibility of the Ministers
• The principle of collective responsibility finds place in Art. 75(3) where it is stated that the Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
• In other words, this provision means that a Council of Ministers which loses confidence of the Lok Sabha is obliged to resign. The ministers fall and stand together.
Individual Responsibility of Ministers
• The rule regarding individual responsibility is to be found in Art. 75(2)
• It is stated that ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.
• Collectively the ministers survive so long as they have the required support in the Lok Sabha.
• An individual minister may continue to be a member of the council of ministers as long as he has the confidence of the Prime Minister.
• Refusal to oblige the Prime Minster may lead to his dismissal by the President.
Article 163-Council of Ministers to aid and advice Governor
• If any question arises whether a matter falls within the Governor’s discretion or not, decision of the Governor shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.
• The advice tendered by Ministers to the Governor shall not be inquired into in any court
Composition of the Council of Ministers
• The Constitution does not specify the size of the state Council of Ministers or the ranking of ministers.
• They are determined by the Chief Minister according to the exigencies of the time and requirements of the situation.
• Like at the Centre, in the states too, the Council of Ministers consists of three categories of ministers, namely, Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, and Deputy Ministers.
• The difference between them lies in their respective ranks, emoluments, and political importance. At the top of all these ministers stands the Chief Minister- supreme governing authority in the state.
• The Cabinet Ministers head the important departments of the state government like home, education, finance, agriculture and so forth. They are members of the cabinet, attend its meetings and play an important role in deciding policies. Thus, their responsibilities extend over the entire gamut of state government.
• The Ministers of State can either be given independent charge of departments or can be attached to Cabinet Ministers. However, they are not members of the Cabinet and do not attend the Cabinet meetings unless specially invited when something related to their departments are considered by the Cabinet.
• Next in rank are the Deputy Ministers. They are not given independent charge of departments. They are attached to the Cabinet Ministers and assist them in their administrative, political and parliamentary duties. They are not members of the Cabinet and do not attend Cabinet meetings.
Responsibility of the Council of Ministers
1. Collective Responsibility
• The fundamental principle underlying the working of parliamentary system of government is the principle of collective responsibility. 
• Article 164 clearly states that the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the legislative assembly of the state. This means that all the ministers own joint responsibility to the legislative assembly for all their acts of omission and commission. They work as a team and swim or sink together.
• When the Legislative Assembly passes a no confidence motion against the Council of Ministers, all the ministers have to resign including those ministers who are from the Legislative Council.
• The principle of collective responsibility also means that the Cabinet decisions bind all Cabinet Ministers (and other ministers) even if they deferred in the cabinet meeting.
• It is the duty of every minister to stand by the Cabinet decisions and support them both within and outside the state legislature. If any minister disagrees with a Cabinet decision and is not prepared to defend it, he must resign. Several ministers have resigned in the past owing to their differences with the Cabinet.
2. Individual Responsibility
• Article 164 also contains the principle of individual responsibility.
• It states that the ministers hold office during the pleasure of the Governor. This means that the Governor can remove a minister at a time when the Council of Ministers enjoys the confidence of the Legislative Assembly.
• But, the Governor can remove a minister only on the advice of the Chief Minister. In case of difference of opinion or dissatisfaction with the performance of a minister, the Chief Minister can ask him to resign or advice the Governor to dismiss him.
• By exercising this power, the Chief Minister can ensure the realization of the rule of collective responsibility.
3. No Legal Responsibility
• As at the Centre, there is no provision in the Constitution for the system of legal responsibility of the minister in the states.
• It is not required that an order of the Governor for a public act should be countersigned by a minister.
• Moreover, the courts are barred from enquiring into the nature of advice rendered by the ministers to the governor.

Delimitation Commission

Delimitation Commission

Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body.
In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – in 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952, in 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962, in 1973 under Delimitation Act, 1972 and in 2002 under Delimitation Act, 2002.
Under Article 82 of the Constitution, the Parliament by law enacts a Delimitation Act after every census. After coming into force commencement of the Act, the Central Government constitutes a Delimitation Commission.
This Delimitation Commission demarcates the boundaries of the Parliamentary Constituencies as per provisions of the Delimitation Act.
The present delimitation of constituencies has been done on the basis of 2001 census figures under the provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002. Notwithstanding the above, the Constitution of India was specifically amended in 2002 not to have delimitation of constituencies till the first census after 2026. Thus, the present Constituencies carved out on the basis of 2001 census shall continue to be in operation till the first census after 2026.
The Delimitation Commission in India is a high power body whose orders have the force of law and cannot be called in question before any court. These orders come into force on a date to be specified by the President of India in this behalf. The copies of its orders are laid before the House of the People and the State Legislative Assembly concerned, but no modifications are permissible therein by them.

National Policy on Education 2016

National Policy on Education 2016

The National Policy on Education has been formulated by the TSR Subramanian Committee. The 2016 National Policy on Education, which is being formulated nearly three decades since the last Policy, recognizes the criticality of Education as the most important vehicle for social, economic and political transformation. It reiterates the role of education in inculcating values, and to provide skills and competencies for the citizens, and in enabling him to contribute to the nation’s well-being; strengthens democracy by empowering citizens; acts as an integrative force in society, and fosters social cohesion and national identity.
The Salient recommendations are:
1) An Indian Education Service (IES) should be established as an all India service with officers being on permanent settlement to the state governments but with the cadre controlling authority vesting with the Human Resource Development (HRD) ministry.
2) The outlay on education should be raised to at least 6% of GDP without further loss of time.
3) There should be minimum eligibility condition with 50% marks at graduate level for entry to existing B.Ed courses. Teacher Entrance Tests (TET) should be made compulsory for recruitment of all teachers. The Centre and states should jointly lay down norms and standards for TET.
4) Compulsory licensing or certification for teachers in government and private schools should be made mandatory, with provision for renewal every 10 years based on independent external testing.
5) Pre-school education for children in the age group of 4 to 5 years should be declared as a right and a programme for it implemented immediately.
6) The no detention policy must be continued for young children until completion of class V when the child will be 11 years old. At the upper primary stage, the system of detention shall be restored subject to the provision of remedial coaching and at least two extra chances being offered to prove his capability to move to a higher class
7) On-demand board exams should be introduced to offer flexibility and reduce year end stress of students and parents. A National Level Test open to every student who has completed class XII from any School Board should be designed.
8) The mid-day meal (MDM) program should now be extended to cover students of secondary schools. This is necessary as levels of malnutrition and anaemia continue to be high among adolescents.
9) UGC Act must be allowed to lapse once a separate law is created for the management of higher education. The University Grants Commission (UGC) needs to be made leaner and thinner and given the role of disbursal of scholarships and fellowships.
10) Top 200 foreign universities should be allowed to open campuses in India and give the same degree which is acceptable in the home country of the said university.
The New National Policy on Education has tried to address these deficiencies and challenges, along with the need to sharply increase the quality of Indian education, across the board. It offers a framework for change, make education modern with optimal use of technology, without compromising on India’s traditions and heritage.

Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation (PRAGATI)


• PRAGATI is a unique integrating and interactive platform. The platform is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.
• Three major objectives of the program
a) Grievance redressal
b) Project implementation
c) Project monitoring
• The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: Digital data management, video-conferencing and geo-spatial technology.
• It will be a monthly conference call with state chief secretaries and secretaries of the Union government for the speedy redressal of grievances and monitoring and implementation of projects. The Pragati sessions will take place every fourth Wednesday.
• It is to see that programmes and projects launched by the central and state governments are monitored properly for timely implementation and desired outcome. For holistic development of the country, it is necessary to facilitate from central government level the projects of the states.
• It also offers a unique combination in the direction of cooperative federalism since it brings on one stage the Secretaries of Government of India and the Chief Secretaries of the States. With this, the Prime Minister is able to discuss the issues with the concerned Central and State officials with full information and latest visuals of the ground level situation. Such an effort has never been made in India. It is also an innovative project in e-governance and good governance.
• The initiative could give rise to concerns about the Centre- State framework. The system may be seen as bypassing the chief ministers. The move has been criticized for not respecting the federal structure of the country.
• However, the Pragati programme will attempt to find solutions for issues picked up from the available data base regarding public grievances, on-going programmes and pending projects. This new system of governance will definitely give a boost to government projects that have been publicized due to their delays. The need of the hour is speedy implementation and completion of government projects.

Sai Praveen

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