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Climate of India/Climatic Division Region-wise


Climate of India Climatic Division Region-wise

Climate of India

• Different relief features in a vast country like India are responsible for varied climatic conditions
• India has very hot and very cold regions; as well as regions with very heavy rainfall and very scanty rainfall
• The climate of India has been influenced by its position, size and relief features
• Monsoon winds are the main factors that determine the climate of India
• A large part of India has tropical monsoon climate

The South west monsoon controls the agriculture of India, which is the main occupation of the people. When the monsoons fail, there is drought, and the crops also fail. When the monsoon is heavy, there are floods causing destruction to life and property.
MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAN CLIMATE
• Northward shifting of the Westerly Jet (north of Himalayas)
• Northward shifting of the ITCZ.
• S-E trade winds from S. hemisphere cross the equator and turn right due to coriolis force.
• Latitudinal Extent
• Southern Seas
• Northern Mountains
• El – Nino
• La – Nina
• Westerlies in Northern part of India from Mediterranean (in winters)
• Easterlies due to Heating of Tibetian Plateau
• Jet streams
INDIAN MONSOON FEATURES
• Unique weather phenomenon
• Seasonal reversal of winds
• Sudden Onset (Sudden rain start)
• Gradual Advance
• Gradual retreat
• Variation – regional and temporal

• Monsoon is seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
• The southwest monsoon brings rains towards the end of summer as the high pressure built in the Indian Ocean pushes the wind masses towards the low pressure formed on land.
• Temperature Gradient – It’s the temperature variation between the sea and the landmass.

SUMMER MONSOON IN INDIA (SW MONSOON)

• Originates due to Northward shift of ITCZ – SE trade winds cross equator – Deflect & enter into India as SW Monsoon.
• Easterly Jet Stream / SE Monsoon / BOB Monsoon – Due to differential heating of Tibetian plateau & Himalayan region with respect to BOB.
• The southwest monsoon arrives in two branches: the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch.
• The Bay of Bengal branch, which initially tracks the Coromandal Coast northeast from Cape Comorin to Orissa, swerves to the northwest towards the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
• The Arabian Sea branch extends toward a low-pressure area over the Thar Desert and is roughly three times stronger than the Bay of Bengal branch.
• The Arabian Sea branch moves northeast towards the Himalayas.

Initiation of Summer Monsoon- onset of the monsoon
• The southwest monsoon typically breaks over Indian Territory by around 25 May, when it lashes the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal
• It strikes the Indian mainland around 1 June near the Malabar Coast of Kerala
• By 9 June, it reaches Mumbai; it appears over Delhi by 29 June
• By the first week of July, the entire country experiences monsoon rain
• On average, South India receives more rainfall than North India
• However, Northeast India receives the most precipitation
Arabian Sea Branch
• Strikes WGs and Move parallel to Aravallis & Strike Himalayas
• Rainfall at WGs & Coastal Regions and Northern Plains
• Strikes at Western Ghats; and gives rainfall to the western most regions
• While rain shadow interiors, the Deccan plateau receive very less rainfall.
Bay of Bengal Branch:
• Moves parallel with the Eastern Ghats and produce very less rainfall until it strikes at NE.
• Bifurcate at Meghalaya hills & move parallel to Himalaya
• One branch provide rainfall to NE India region
• Another moves westward providing rainfall to northern plains
• Going westward Rainfall Decreases
• Rainfall at Northern East plains and Northern Plains

Withdrawal of Summer Monsoon:
• Monsoon clouds begin retreating from North India by the end of August; it withdraws from Mumbai by 5 October.
• As India further cools during September, the southwest monsoon weakens. By the end of November, it leaves the country.
RETREATING OR NE MONSOON
• Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern land mass of the Indian subcontinent cool off rapidly.
• With this, air pressure begins to build over northern India, but the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere still holds its heat.
• surrounding atmosphere still holds its heat Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean south of the Deccan peninsula.
• This is known as the Northeast Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon.

WINTER RAINFALL IN SOUTH INDIA
• While travelling towards the Indian Ocean, the dry cold wind picks up some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and pours it over peninsular India and parts of Sri Lanka.
• Cities like Madras, which get less rain from the Southwest Monsoon, receive rain from this Monsoon.
• About 50% to 60% of the rain received by the state of Tamil Nadu is from the Northeast Monsoon.
• In Southern Asia, the northeastern monsoons take place from December to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest.

JET STREAMS

• Jet streams are currents of air high above the Earth
• They at altitudes of about 8 to 15 kilometers, located near tropopause
• The major jet streams on Earth are westerly winds (flowing west to east)
• Flow at very high speeds – 120 kmph in winters and 50 kmph in summers
• Jet streams are caused by a combination of a planet’s rotation on its axis and atmospheric heating
• Jet streams form near boundaries of adjacent air masses with significant differences in temperature, such as the polar region and the warmer air towards the equator
• All year round westerlies flow over north India south of Himalayas but in summers with shift of the sun they flow north of Himalayas & replaced by easterlies.

Sub-tropical jet stream
• They prevail over the lower latitudes of westerlies.
• It is produced by the rotation of earth and its spherical shape.
• The air over equator has the highest velocity (Coriolis effect)
• As it rises and moves towards north, it has a higher velocity than the air at lower altitude prevailing at same latitude
• So it begins to flow from west to east around 300 latitude.

Sub-Tropical Westerly Jet:
• Winter – entirely south of Himalayas – over north India
• Major cause of western disturbance
• STWJ maintain the High pressure over north India
• Hence no Monsoon in winters
• During summers it flows to the north of Himalayas
• Hence low pressure over north India & monsoon
– Tropical Easterly Jet Stream which is associated closely with the burst of monsoon. It is also a major reason why there are no cyclones during Monsoon because the presence of an Easterly jet over the Indian landmass in the upper troposphere prevents vertical circulation of air, which is a pre-condition for formation of cyclones.
Mid-latitude or polar front jet stream
• It is more variable and is produced by a temperature difference
• In summers its position shifts towards poles and in winters towards equator

WESTERN DISTURBANCES

• Western Disturbances are the Temperate cyclones or extra-tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean
• Brings sudden winter rain and snow to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent
• This is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the Westerlies
• The moisture in these storms usually originates over the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean
• They travel from place to place due to difference in pressure. There is high pressure in northwestern Indian subcontinent favouring its travel
• During winters, low pressure system originates over the Mediterranean Sea & western Asia and moves into India, along with westerly flow.
• Western Disturbances are important to the development of the Rabi crop in the northern subcontinent, esp. wheat
• They shower rain over Pakistan, India and Nepal
• Extra-tropical storms are a global, rather than a localized, phenomena with moisture usually carried in the upper atmosphere (unlike tropical storms where it is carried in the lower atmosphere)
Winter Rainfall occurs due to:
• North East Monsoon
• Western Disturbances
• Tropical Cyclones
SOUTHERN OSCILLATIONS
• A curious see-saw pattern of meteorological changes has been observed b/w Indian Ocean & Pacific ocean
• Whenever pressure is higher over Indian Ocean, low pressure prevails over Pacific Ocean & vice versa
• Scales used for this pattern is SOI (Southern Oscillation Index) – (Tahiti – Darwin) Pressure
Tahiti = Pacific Ocean, Darwin = Indian Ocean
• When SOI > 0 – Good monsoon in India – La Nina Condition
• When SOI < 0 – Bad monsoon in India – El Nino Condition
Before understanding El Nino & La Nina one must understand Walkar Cell & Ocean Circulations
Normal Year – Walker cell Condition at south Pacific

• LP – Northern Australia and HP – South America (Peru)
• South equatorial current pile up water at northern Australia – increase SST – called West Pacific Pool
• It brings rainfall in Northern Australia
• The diverging air above Australia move towards Peruvian coast
• They descend at Peruvian coast = HP – desiccating effect to Atacama desert
• Completes the Walker cell
Normal Conditions:
• As south equatorial current take water from east to west
• It led water from bottom to come up and take the space
• Up-welling at the Peruvian coast = rich fishing ground

El Nino:
• Direction of walker cell reverses
• South equatorial current weakens (reason unknown) & strong counter current activates
• Weak piling up of water at Northern Australia
• Weakening of west Pacific Pool
• Ocean water move towards Peruvian coast
• Create LP system over there and rainfall at Atacama Desert
• The rising and diverging wind above Peru descends over Australia = HP condition – drought in Northern Australia
• The reversal in wind direction alters submarine cycle as well
• Down-welling at Peruvian coast – loss in fishing business

• It is a warm current which appears off the coast of Peru in December (3 – 36* S of Equator), also known as child Christ as it appears around Christmas
• It is temporary replacement of cold Peruvian / Humbolt current which normally flows against the coast & appears once in 3 – 7 years
• Responsible for widespread flood & droughts in various tropical regions of the world
• Warming of tropical pacific water affects the global pattern of pressure & wind system, including monsoon winds in Indian Ocean
• High pressure of Indian Ocean & low pressure at said area of Pacific Ocean shifts some of the monsoon winds to Pacific Ocean side which results in scarcity of rainfall in India
• Bring drought condition in Indonesia as well – forest fire
La Nina (The Girl in Spanish)
• After El Nino when weather conditions return to normal, trade winds become strong
• Hence they cause abnormal accumulation of cold water in central & eastern pacific region
• This creates a high pressure region in Pacific Ocean as compared to Indian Ocean
• Heavy rainfall – flood condition in Northern Australia – good monsoon in India
• Very good fishing business at Peruvian coast – price crash
• Drought in Atacama
• La Nina brings heavy monsoon showers in India due to N – E monsoon along with monsoon laiden pacific winds from tropical Pacific Ocean although it marks an active hurricane season at Peru
Impact of El NiƱo and La Nina on Indian Weather
• El Nino and La Nina are among the most powerful phenomenon on the Earth.
• These are known to alter climate across more than half the planet and dramatically impact weather patterns.
• Over Indian subcontinent, El Nino during winter results in development of warm conditions. During summer, it leads to dry conditions and deficient monsoon.
• It also leads to drought in Australia. On the other hand, La Nina results in better than normal monsoon in India. At the same time, in Australia it has caused floods.
• In the recent past, India experienced deficient rainfall during El Nino years 2002 and 2009 whereas monsoon was normal during El Nino years 1994 and 1997.
• This so far implies that in about 50 per cent of the years with El Nino during summer, India experienced droughts during monsoon. This implies that El Nino is not the only factor that affects monsoon in India.
• There are other factors that affect India’s rainfall pattern. These include North Atlantic SST, Equatorial SE Indian Ocean SST, East Asia Mean Sea Level Pressure, North Atlantic Mean Sea Level Pressure and North Central Pacific wind at 1.5 km above sea level.

SOME BASIC TERMINOLOGY RELATED TO PRE-MONSOON
 DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL IN INDIA
• The rainfall in India is seasonal, uncertain and unevenly distributed
• Mainly pours down during the South-West Monsoon period
• On the basis of the quantity of rainfall, we can divide India into five major rainfall regions viz.


TROPICAL CYCLONES IN INDIA
• Increase in sea surface temperature of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in Late summer
• Hence Possibility of Tropical cyclone
• Retreating SW monsoon branch drag them towards Eastern coast
• Tropical cyclones move from east to West
• They are secondary circulations and maintain the larger direction of the planetary winds (i.e. Trade winds which blow from East to West).
• So, any cyclones to form in Arabian sea is less likely to affect India
• But the Delta region of eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclone

Parliamentary Functioning/Passage of Bill/Budgeting


Parliamentary Functioning Passage of Bill Budget in Parliament

Parliamentary Functioning

SESSION OF PARLIAMENT, SUMMONING PROROGATION AND DISSOLUTION
a) The President shall from time to time summon each House of Parliament to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but six months shall not intervene between its last sitting in one session and the date appointed for its sitting in the next session.
b) The President may from time to time –
(i) Prorogue the Houses or either House
(ii) Dissolve the House of the People.
Sessions of the Parliament
a) A session of Indian Parliament is the time period during which a House meets almost every day continuously to transact business.
b) There are usually three sessions in a year.
a. the Budget Session (February to May)
b. the Monsoon Session (July to September)and
c. the Winter Session (November to December).
c) A session contains many meetings. Each meeting has two sittings – morning sitting from 11 am to 1 pm and post-lunch sitting from 2 pm to 6 pm.
d) A sitting of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment, adjournment sine die, prorogation or dissolution.
e) The period between the prorogation of a House and its reassembly in a new session is called ‘recess’.
Summoning
a) Summoning is the process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet.
b) It is the duty of Indian President to summon each House of the Parliament from time to time.
c) The maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months. In other words, the Parliament should meet at least twice a year.
Adjournment
a) An adjournment suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.
b) In this case, the time of reassembly is specified.
c) An adjournment only terminates a sitting and not a session of the House.
d) The power of adjournment lies with the presiding officer of the House.
Adjournment Sine Die
a) Adjournment sine die means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period.
b) In other words, when the House is adjourned without naming a day for reassembly, it is called adjournment sine die.
c) The power of adjournment sine die lies with the presiding officer of the House.
Note: The presiding officer of a House can call a sitting of the House before the date or time to which it has been adjourned or at any time after the House has been adjourned sine die.
Prorogation
a) Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution.
b) Prorogation terminates both the sitting and session of the House.
c) Usually, within a few days after the House is adjourned sine die by the presiding officer, the President issues a notification for the prorogation of the session.
d) However, the President can also prorogue the House while in session.
Dissolution
a) Dissolution ends the very life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after general elections are held.
b) Rajya Sabha, being a permanent House, is not subject to dissolution. Only the Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution.
c) The dissolution of the Lok Sabha may take place in either of two ways:
a. Automatic dissolution: On the expiry of its tenure – five years or the terms as extended during a national emergency.
b. Order of President: If President is authorized by CoM, he can dissolve Lok Sabha, even before the end of the term. He may also dissolve Lok Sabha if CoM loses confidence and no party is able to form the government. Once the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the completion of its normal tenure, the dissolution is irrevocable.
d) When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees lapse.

OTHER TERMS RELATED TO THE PARLIAMENTARY FUNCTIONING

Quorum
• It is the minimum number of members whose presence is essential to transact the business of the House. Article 100 provides the quorum of either House shall be one tenth of the total number of members of the House.
Question Hour
The day’s business normally begins with the Question Hour during which question asked by the members are answered by the Minister. The different types of questions are –
(a) Starred Question: It is one for which an oral answer is required to be given by the Minister on the floor of the House. Supplementary question may be asked based on the Minister’s reply. The Speaker decides if a question should be answered orally or otherwise. One member can ask only one starred question in a day.
(b) Unstarred Question: It is one for which the Minister lays on the table a written answer. A ten day notice has to be given to ask such question and no supplementary questions can be asked with regard to such questions.
(c) Short Notice Question: This type of question which can be asked by members on matters of public importance of an urgent nature. It is for the speaker to decide whether the matter is of urgent nature or not. The member has also to state reasons for asking the question while serving notice.
Zero Hour
• This period follows the ‘Question Hour’ and it normally begins at noon. Usually, the members use this period to raise various issues for discussion.
Cut Motions
• A motion that seeks reduction in the amount of a demand presented by the govt. is known as a cut Motion.
• Such motions are admitted at the speakers’ discretion. It is a device through which members can draw the attention of the government to a specific grievance or problem.
• There are three types Of cut motions –
(i) Disapproval of policy cut – which is to express disapproval of the policy underlying a particular demand, says that ‘the amount of the demand be reduced to Re. 1“.
(ii) Economy cut – Economy Cut refers to a cut motion which seeks to reduce the demand by a specific sum with a view to effecting the economy in the expenditure.
(iii) Token cut – is a device to ventilate specific grievances within the sphere of the government’s responsibility. The grievance has to be specified. Usually, the motion is in the form, “The amount of the demand is reduced by Rs. 100”.
Calling Attention Motion
• With prior permission of the speaker; a member may call the attention of a Minister to any matter of urgent public importance. The Minister may make a brief statement regarding the matter or ask for time to make a statement.
Privilege Motion
• It is motion moved by a member if he feels that a minister has committed a breach of privilege of the House or of any one or more of its members by with-holding facts of a case or by giving a distorted version of acts.
Points of Order
• A member may raise a point of order if the proceedings of the House do not follow the rules. The presiding officer decides whether the points of order raised by the member should be allowed.
Vote on account
• As there is usually gap between the presentation of the budget and its approval, the vote on account enables the govt. to draw some amount from the consolidated fund of India to meet the expenses in the intervening period.
Guillotine
• On the last of the allotted days at the appointed time, the speaker puts every question necessary to dispose all the outstanding matters in connection with the demands for grants. This is known as guillotine. The guillotine concludes the discussion and demands for grants.
Censure Motion
• It is differs from a no-confidence motion in that the latter does not specify any ground on which it is based, while the former has to mention the charges against the govt. for which it is being moved.
• A censure motion can be moved against the Council of Minister or an individual minister for failing to act or for some policy. Reason for the censure must be precisely enumerated. The speaker decides whether or not the motion is in order and no leave of the House is required for moving it.
• The Govt. may at its discretion fix a date for the discussion of the motion. If the motion is passed in the Lok Sabha the Council of Minister is expected to resign.
PARLIAMENTARY PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES
• Parliamentary privileges, i.e., exceptional right or advantages are granted to the members of legislatures all over the world. Thus, in most of the democratic countries, the legislatures and their members enjoy certain privileges so as to function effectively.
• Privilege though part of the law of the land, is to a certain extent an exemption from the ordinary law.
• The privileges can be exercised by the House of the Parliament without help or hindrance from the judges.
• Parliamentary privileges can be classified into two broad categories:
1. Those that are enjoyed by each House of Parliament collectively, and
2. Those that are enjoyed by the members individually.
Collective Privileges – The privileges belonging to each House of Parliament collectively are:
(i) It has the right to publish its reports, debates and proceedings and also the right to prohibit others from publishing the same. The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 restored the freedom of the press to publish true reports of parliamentary proceedings without prior permission of the House. But this is not applicable in the case of a secret sitting of the House.
(ii) It can exclude strangers from its proceedings and hold secret sittings to discuss some important matters.
(iii) It can make rules to regulate its own procedure and the conduct of its business and to adjudicate upon such matters.
(iv) It can punish members as well as outsiders for breach of its privileges or its contempt by reprimand, admonition or imprisonment (also suspension or expulsion, in case of members).
(v) It has the right to receive immediate information of the arrest, detention, conviction, imprisonment and release of a member.
(vi) It can institute inquiries and order the attendance of witnesses and send for relevant papers and records.
(vii) The courts are prohibited to inquire into the proceedings of a House or its committees.
(viii) No person (either a member or outsider) can be arrested, and no legal process (civil or criminal) can be served within the precincts of the House without the permission of the presiding officer.
Individual Privileges – The privileges belonging to the members individually are:
(i) They cannot be arrested during the session of Parliament and 40 days before the beginning and 40 days after the end of a session. This privilege is available only in civil cases and not in criminal cases or preventive detention cases.
(ii) They have freedom of speech in Parliament. No member is liable to any proceedings in any court for anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or its committees. This freedom is subject to the provisions of the Constitution and to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament.
(iii) They are exempted from jury service. They can refuse to give evidence and appear as a witness in a case pending in a court when Parliament is in session.
Constitutional provisions relating to Parliamentary Privileges
These privileges are available to all the legislatures –
a) The main articles of the Constitution of India dealing with the privileges of Parliament are 105 and 122 and the corresponding articles for the states are 194 and 212.
b) Article 105 (1) of the Constitution of India provides that, subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there would be freedom of speech in the Parliament.
c) Article 105(2) provides that no member of Parliament would be liable to any proceedings against him in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and that no person would be liable in respect of the publication of any report, paper votes or proceedings by or under the authority or either House of Parliament.
d) Article 105(3) ordains that in other respects the powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament, and of the members and committees thereof, would be such as may from time to time be defined by Parliament by law
e) According to clause of this article, the provisions of clauses 1, and 3 would apply to persons who by virtue of the Constitution have the right to speak in or take part in the proceedings of a House of Parliament or a committee thereof, as they apply to the members of Parliament.
OFFICERS OF THE PARLIAMENT
Each House of Parliament has its own officers to preside over its meetings-

Speaker

a) The House of the people is presided over by the Speaker who is elected by the House from among its own members.
b) He has to discharge his responsibilities as a presiding officer. He brings the detachment and objectivity to bear upon all his decision.
c) He presides over the meetings of the House. He adjourns the House or suspends its meeting if there is no quorum.
d) Article 94 (c) provides for the removal of the Speaker by a resolution of the House passed by a majority of all the then members of the House. Removal of officers from their position in this manner, namely, by such special resolutions and by such special majorities is restricted to only a few officers such as the President, the Vice-President, the Presiding Officers of both House of Parliament, Judges of the Supreme Court, etc, as these officers are expected to discharge their responsibilities without political and party considerations.
Deputy Speaker
a) The Deputy Speaker who presides over the House in the absence of the Speaker is elected in the same manner in which the Speaker is elected by the House.
b) He can be removed from office also in the same manner.
c) When he sits in the seat of the Speaker, he has all the powers of the Speaker and can perform all his functions. One of his special privileges is that when he is appointed as a member of a Parliamentary Committee, he automatically becomes its Chairman.
d) By virtue of the office that he holds, he has a right to be present at any meeting of any Committee if he so chooses and can preside over its deliberations. His rulings are generally final in any case, so far as they are related to the matter under discussion, but the Speaker may give guidance in the interest of uniformity in practice. Whenever the Deputy Speaker is in doubt, he reserves the matter for the ruling of the Speaker.
e) The Deputy Speaker, however, is otherwise like any ordinary member when the Speaker presides over the House. He may speak like any other member, maintain his party affiliation and vote on propositions before the House as any ordinary member.
f) The Deputy Speaker is entitled to a regular salary.
Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States
a) While presiding officers of the Lok Sabha are called the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker, their opposite officers in the Council of States are called the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman respectively.
b) The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States. As the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha, his functions and powers are the same as those of the Speaker. He is however not a member of the House.
c) Duties
(i) In the absence of the Chairman, the Council is presided over by the Deputy Chairman. He is a member of the House and is elected by the members of the House. When he ceases to be a member of the Council, he automatically vacates the office of the Deputy Chairman. He can resign his office by writing to the Chairman.
(ii) The Deputy Chairman is empowered to discharge all the functions and to perform all duties of the office of the Chairman, whenever Chairman’s office is vacant or when the Vice-President is acting as the President.
(iii) As a presiding officer of the Council he is also given a regular salary and other allowances that Parliament by law has fixed. The Council of States also has a panel of members, called Vice-Chairman, nominated by the Chairman for the purpose of presiding over the House in the absence of both the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman.
d) Removal – He may be removed from his office by a resolution passed by a majority of all the member of the Council.
PRESIDING OFFICERS OF STATE LEGISLATURE
· Speaker and a Deputy Speaker for the legislative assembly
· Chairman and a Deputy Chairman for the legislative council
Speaker
a) Speaker is Elected by the assembly itself from amongst its members.
b) He vacates his office earlier in any of the following three cases
(i) If he ceases to be a member of the assembly
(ii) If he resigns by writing to the deputy speaker and
(iii) If he is removed by a resolution passed by a majority of all the then members of the assembly. Such a resolution can be moved only after giving 14 days advance notice
c) Powers and duties
(i) Maintains order and decorum in the assembly
(ii) Final interpreter of the provisions of (a) the Constitution of India, (b) the rules of procedure and conduct of business of assembly, and (c) the legislative precedents adjourns the assembly or suspends the meeting in the absence of a quorum
(iii) Does not vote in the first instance. But, he can exercise a casting vote in the case of a tie
(iv) Can allow a secret‘ sitting of the House at the request of the leader of the House decides whether a bill is a Money Bill or not and his decision on this question is final
(v) Appoints the chairmen of all the committees of the assembly and supervises their functioning Himself
(vi) Chairman of the Business Advisory Committee, the Rules Committee and the General Purpose Committee
Deputy Speaker of Assembly
• Also elected by the assembly itself from amongst its members, remaining part is same as like speaker.
Chairman of Council
a) Elected by the council itself from amongst its members
b) Vacates-same like Speaker
c) Powers and duties is also like speaker
d) The Speaker has one special power which is not enjoyed by the Chairman.
e) The Speaker decides whether a bill is a Money Bill or not and his decision on this question is final which is not done by the chairman of the council.
Deputy Chairman of Council
a) Also elected by the assembly itself from amongst its members, remaining part is same as like deputy speaker
Rights of Ministers and Advocate General
a) Every minister and the advocate general of the state have the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of either House or any of its committees of which he is named a member, without being entitled to vote.
b) There are two reasons underlying this constitutional provision:
1. A minister can participate in the proceedings of a House, of which he is not a member.
2. A minister, who is not a member of either House, can participate in the proceedings of both the Houses.

Lodha Committee Recommendations


Lodha Committee Recommendations

The cricket is the only sport of India which has its place in hearts all people of India. But the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) which administers the game in the nation, however, continues to be mired in one controversy after another as large political interference, corruption, match fixing or betting, etc.
Especially after advent of IPL, match fixing and corruption has become a more common notion in the cricket of India. This is the reason why Supreme Court interfere in this matter and appoint Lodha committee to give final verdict for IPL scandal and recommendations for reforms in BCCI.
The Justice RM Lodha Committee made several groundbreaking recommendations to the Supreme Court. These include almost a complete restructuring of the BCCI, creation of a separate body to govern IPL, a ban on ministers or government servants holding posts in the BCCI, and more.
The recommendations are:
a) Lodha panel wants BCCI to come under RTI Act.
b) Lodha panel recommends legalisation of betting.
c) Lodha panel proposes one person one post. Also no proxy voting of individuals
d) No BCCI office-bearer can have more than two consecutive terms.
e) No BCCI office-bearer can be Minister or government servant, recommends Lodha panel.
f) In no case President will hold post for more than 2 years.
g) Lodha panel recommends a steering committee headed by former Home Secy G K Pillai with Mohinder Amarnath, Diana Eduljee and Anil Kumble.
h) Panel recommends separate governing bodies for the IPL and BCCI.
i) Lodha Committee recommends relegation of Railways, Services and Universities as Associate members. They also lose voting rights.
j) Punishment and reforms were the main tasks for the Lodha committee.

Motion of Thanks


Motion of Thanks

Motion of Thanks is a motion in Indian Parliament which follows the address of the President of India to the joint sitting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha at the commencement of first session of a new Lok Sabha and first session of every year.
Procedure:
• President’s address is the speech delivered by the President of India to both Houses of Parliament assembled together at the commencement of the first session after each general election to Lok Sabha and at the commencement of the first session of each year (this is usually the budget session). This speech is a statement of the government policy and is approved by the cabinet.
• The president highlights legislative and policy activities of the government, achievements of the previous year and broad agenda of the upcoming year.
• This address is followed by a Motion of Thanks, which is moved in each house by an MP of the ruling party.
• The deliberations on this motion last for three to four days. The deliberations allow the opposition to critically discuss the government’s vision, scope and policies.
• At the end of these discussions, the Prime Minister gives replies to the points or questions raised.
• After the reply of the PM is over, the Members of Parliament vote on this motion of thanks. This motion must be passed in both of the houses. A failure to get motion of thanks passed (which may happen rarely) amounts to defeat of government and leads to collapse of government.
• This is why, the Motion of Thanks is deemed to be a no-confidence motion. However, before such voting, some members may also move amendment to the address. Such amendments may be: for emphasising or adding issues addressed by the president for including some issues or highlight some issues which did not find mention in the speech there have already been three instances so far.
Amendment to Motion of Thanks
For the second year in a row, an Opposition-sponsored amendment to the Motion of Thanks on the President’s Address has been adopted by the Rajya Sabha. Last year, the Motion of Thanks was amended on the issue of black money; this year, the amendment focussed on legislation passed by Bharatiya Janata Party governments in Rajasthan and Haryana limiting the rights of citizens to contest panchayat elections. Before 2015, there were just three occasions on which the President’s Address was amended in the Rajya Sabha, once each during the tenures of Indira Gandhi, V.P. Singh and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The first instance of such an amendment to the Motion of Thanks came in 1980 on the issue of engineering defections. The second was in 1989, when six amendments — including on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute and the India-Sri Lanka accord — were approved. The third occasion was in 2001, when the House adopted an amendment on the sale of a public sector undertaking, Balco, to a private company. These were all politically contentious issues. So was the issue on which the Opposition parties mobilised themselves this year, and it raises vital questions for democracy.

Sagarmala Project


Sagarmala Project

Presently, Indian ports handle more than 90% of India’s total EXIM trade volume. However, the current proportion of merchandize trade in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India is only 42%, whereas for some developed countries and regions in the world such as Germany and European Union, it is 75% and 70% respectively.
The growth of India’s maritime sector is constrained due to many developmental, procedural and policy related challenges viz.  involvement of multiple agencies in development of infrastructure to promote industrialization, trade, tourism and transportation; presence of a dual institutional structure that has led to development of major and non-major ports as separate, unconnected entities; lack of requisite infrastructure for evacuation from major and non-major ports leading to sub-optimal transport modal mix; limited hinterland linkages that increases the cost of transportation and cargo movement; limited development of centres for manufacturing and urban and economic activities in the hinterland; low penetration of coastal and inland shipping in India, limited mechanization and procedural bottlenecks and lack of scale, deep draft and other facilities at various ports in India.
The Sagarmala initiative will address these challenges by focusing on three pillars of development, namely
(i) Supporting and enabling Port-led Development through appropriate policy and institutional interventions and  providing for an institutional framework for ensuring inter-agency and ministries/departments/states’ collaboration for integrated development,
(ii) Port Infrastructure Enhancement, including modernization and setting up of new ports, and
(iii) Efficient Evacuation to and from hinterland.
Benefits of Sagarmala Project
• Sagarmala will lead to large scale employment generation of skilled and semi-skilled manpower in industrial clusters and parks, large ports, maritime services, logistics services, and other sectors of the economy that will be directly and indirectly impacted by port-led development under Sagarmala.
• Manufacture of ships, vessels, cruise ships, barges and tugs will also increase industrial output and also contribute to employment generation.
• It will result in sustainable development of the population living in the Coastal Economic Zones (CEZ) by synergising and coordinating with State Governments and line Ministries of Central Government through their existing schemes and programmes such as those related to community and rural development, tribal development and employment generation, fisheries, skill development, tourism promotion etc.  Today about 70 lakhs persons are dependent on fisheries for their livelihood.
• It will enhance the capacity of major and non-major ports and modernize them to make them efficient, thereby enabling them to become drivers of port-led economic development, optimizing the use of existing and future transport assets and developing new lines/linkages for transport (including roads, rail, inland waterways and coastal routes), setting up of logistics hubs, and establishment of industries and manufacturing centres to be served by the ports in EXIM and domestic trade.
• It also aims at simplifying procedures used at ports for cargo movement and promotes usage of electronic channels for information exchange leading to quick, efficient, hassle-free and seamless cargo movement.

Sai Praveen

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