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The forces acting on the earth’s surface leads to the creation, destruction, recreation and maintenance of geo-materials on the earth’s crust. The forces are divided as Endo-genetic and Exo-genetic forces.
– Various agents of denudation like running water, rain, frost, sun, wind, glaciers and waves have constantly reshaped the face of the earth making it very varied and diverse. However, the plateau and plains have only modified these structures which have been modeled by the movements of the earth’s crust.
– Since the down of the geological time there have been about nine orogenic or mountain building movements, folding and fracturing the earth’s crust. Some of them occurred in Pre-Cambrian times between 600 – 3500 Million years ago.
– The three most recent orogenies are the:
• Caledonian (about 320 million years ago) raised the mountains of Scandinavia and Scotland in North America. These mountain ranges have been worn down by the agents of denudation and are no longer exhibit the striking forms as existed earlier.
 Hercynian (about 240 million years ago) raised the Ural Mountains, the Pennines and Welsh Highlands in Britain, the Harz Mountains in Germany, the Appalachians in America and the high plateaux of Siberia and China. These mountains have also been reduced in size by the various sculpturing forces.
• Alpine (about 30 million years ago) the recent and major orogenic movements of the earth, raised mountain ranges such as Alps, Himalayas, Andes and Rockies which are the young loftiest mountains and are most imposing.
– The above developments of the landforms are the results of Endo-genetic and Exo-genetic forces.
• The forces which originate inside the earth due to volcanism, diastrophism and massive crustal rearrangement are known as Endo-genetic Forces.

• The external forces which bring changes in the landforms through the process of erosion, mass wasting and weathering are known as Exo-genetic Forces.

The forces coming from within the earth are called as endo-genetic forces which cause two types of movements in the earth, viz:
a) Horizontal Movements: Side to side movements of the earth’s crust (Horizontal and Tangential), causes lot of disruptions in the horizontal layer of strata as they involve compression and tension of the pre-existing rocks.
b) Vertical Movements: Slow and widespread bringing changes in the horizontal rock strata. Originate from the centre of the earth causing large scale upliftment or subsidence of a part of the earth’s crust forming continents and plateaus. These movements motored by the endo-genetic forces introduce various types of vertical irregularities which give birth to numerous varieties of relief features on the earth’s surface, eg., mountains, plateaus, plains, lakes, faults, folds, etc.
The energies in the endo-genetic forces are mostly generated by radioactivity, rotational and tidal friction and primordial heat from the origin of the earth. This energy is due to geothermal gradients and heat flow from within induces diastrophism and volcanism in the lithosphere.
The endo-genetic forces and movements are divided, on the basis of intensity, into two major categories:
a) Diastrophic Forces: It is a general term applied to slow bending, folding, warping and fracturing of the earth’s crust which becomes discernible after thousands of years. From the point of view of areal distribution, Diastrophic forces can further be divided into two sub-groups:
I. Epeirogenetic Movements: A slow process causing movements of the earth’s crust resulting into the displacements of continents and ocean basins. It acts along the radius of the earth and hence also known as radial movements.
• Their direction may be towards (subsidence) or away (uplift) from the center. The formation of mid-oceanic ridges, ocean trenches, the Great Rift Valley of Africa can be attributed to these movements.
• Some of the beaches which have been elevated (uplifted) as much as 15 m to 30 m above the present sea level such as Kathiawar, Nellore and Thirunelveli coasts. Several places which were the flourishing sea ports about 1000 to 2000 years ago are now a few miles inland such as Coringa near the mouth of the Godavari, Kaveripattinam in the Kaveri delta and Korkai on the coast of Thirunelveli.
• An earthquake in 1819 submerged a part of Rann of Kachchh. Presence of peat and lignite beds below the sea level in Thirunelveli and the Sundarbans is an example of subsidence. The Andamans and Nicobars have been isolated from the Arakan coast by submergence of the intervening land.
• Trees have been found embedded in mud about 4 m below the low water mark on the east side of Bombay Island and on the Thirunelveli coast in Tamil Nadu. A part of the former town of Mahabalipuram near Chennai (Madras) and a large part of Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait (shallow zone) have been submerged in geologically recent times.
II. Orogenetic Movements: It involves mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust acting tangentially to the earth surface, as in plate tectonics. It can further be divided into Compressional and Tensional.
• Compressional forces result into folding (folds), crustal bending, local rise and subsidence because this type of force acts towards a point from two or more directions.
 Tensional forces create cracks, ruptures, features and faults, since this type of forces acts away from a point in two directions.
b) Sudden forces: These are the result of long period preparation deep within the earth. Only their cumulative effects on the earth’s surface are quick and sudden. Geologically, these sudden forces are termed as ‘constructive forces’ because these create certain relief features on the earth’s surface.
Endo-genetic forces create deformation in the earth’s crust. This distortion takes place more in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks than in igneous rocks as the former rocks are usually horizontal, a little deformation becomes easily discernible. The structures are discussed as follows:
(A) Folds: Fold is a bending of the Earth’s crust owing to compressional forces.
 According to shape, the folds are of many types:
Symmetrical Folds—These are ordinary folds. The limbs of the folds are equally inclined on either side.
o Asymmetrical Fold—One of the limbs is more inclined than the other.
o Monoclinal Fold—In this fold, one limb makes a right angle with the surface but the other limb is ordinarily inclined.

o Isoclinal Fold—The two limbs are so much inclined in such a way that they appear equally inclined and parallel to each other.
o Recumbent Fold—In this fold the two limbs are so much inclined that they become horizontal.
Overturned Fold—In this fold one limb is overturned over the other limb. The difference between the overturned and recumbent folds is that the overturned limbs are not horizontal like those of recumbent fold.
Plunging Fold—If the axis of the fold is not parallel to the horizontal but makes an angle with it, it is known as Plunging Fold.
o Fan Fold—It is a great anticline which has many small anticlines and synclines. It is also known as Anticlinorium. A great syncline having many small anticlines and synclines is called Synclinorium.
o Open Fold—If the angle between the limbs of a fold is obtuse, the fold is called Open Fold.
o Closed Fold—If the angle between the limbs of a fold is acute, it is called Closed Fold.
(B) Fault: Fault is a rupture and fracture of rocks strata due to strain. Faults have also been defined as a surface along which a rock-body has broken and been displaced.
 Some of the important faults are as under.
 Normal Fault (Tension): The faults having mainly vertical movement are called normal faults. A normal faults results in a seep, straight cliff like feature.

 Reverse Fault (Compression): One side of the fault moves upward vertically in comparison to the other side.

 Strike-slip fault: A strike-slip fault is a fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. These faults are identified as either right-lateral or left lateral depending on whether the displacement of the far block is to the right or the left when viewed from either side. The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a right lateral fault.
Strike-slip faults are either right-lateral or left-lateral. That means someone standing near the fault trace and looking across it would see the far side move to the right or to the left, respectively. The one in the picture is left-lateral.
Various types of landforms are being produced by faults:
 Rift Valley or Graben: When a block between two normal faults is depressed, the valley formed in the faults is known as Rift Valley or Graben.
 Horst or Block Mountain: When a block between two normal faults is raised up, the raised block with its plateau like surface and steep sloppy edge, is known as Block Mountain or an Horst
 Drag: When there is a movement in a fault, the rocks get bent. This bending gives direction to the movement. This bending of the rocks is called Drag.

Types of Political System

A political system is the set of formal legal institutions that constitute a “state.” There are seven types of political systems namely as follows:
1) Democracy – Democracy is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as rule of the majority. India, the US, the UK, France, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Japan etc. are the democratic countries.
Features –
• The democracy consists of four key elements: (a) A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections; (b) The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life; (c) Protection of the human rights of all citizens, and (d) A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.
• Other features of democracy are as follows:
a) Popular sovereignty
b) Political freedom & equality
c) Protection of minority rights
d) Independence of judiciary
e) Presence of civil & socio-economic rights
f) Legal equality & rule of law etc.
2) Dictatorship – Dictatorship is a form of government where a country is ruled by one person or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity’s power remains strong. Nazi Germany, Soviet Union under Stalin’s rule, Napoleonic France, Pol Pot regime in Cambodia, North Korea under Kim Jong-Il & Kim Il Sung, Zimbabwe under Robert Mugabe, Uganda under Idi Amin etc. are examples of the dictatorship.
Features –
• It comes into existence by force.
• Nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens is regulated.
• Such systems generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems.
• It is characterized by arbitrary, unaccountable & irresponsible role of the dictator.
• The distinction between the state & the government is absent.
3) Monarchy – A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, usually a family called the dynasty, embodies the country’s national identity and one of its members, called the monarch, exercises a role of sovereignty. Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Morocco etc. have Monarchical form of political system.
Features –
• The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). The UK is a Constitutional Monarchy; whereas the King of Saudi Arabia is an absolute Monarch. The monarchs of Cambodia, Japan, and Malaysia “reign, but do not rule” although there is considerable variation in the degree of authority they wield.
• Traditionally and in most cases, the monarch’s post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, but there are also elective monarchies where the monarch is elected.
4) Theocracy – It is a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the king or immediate ruler, and his laws are taken as the statute-book of the kingdom, these laws being usually administered by a priestly order as his ministers and agents. Hence, it is a system of government by a sacerdotal order, claiming a divine commission; also, a state so governed. The Holy See (Vatican City), Iran, Saudi Arabia, Central Tibetan Administration etc. are the examples of theocracies.
Features –
• In a pure theocracy, the civil leader is believed to have a personal connection with the civilization’s religion or belief. For example, Moses led the Israelites, and Muhammad led the early Muslims.
• An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation. The papacy in the Papal States occupied a middle ground between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, since the pope did not claim he was a prophet who received revelation from God and translated it into civil law.
• While secular governments have some aspects of life that are not influenced by religion, theocratic governments seek guidance from higher powers to cover all aspects of life, including law, punishment, education and marriage.
5) Totalitarian – Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible, without any respect for human rights.
In an authoritarian regime a single power holder an individual dictator, a committee or a small group of political elite monopolizes political power. The authoritarian state is only concerned with political power and as long as that is not contested it gives society a certain degree of liberty. In contrast, a totalitarian regime attempts to control virtually all aspects of the social life, including the economy, education, art, science, private life, and morals of citizens. The totalitarian government seeks to completely control the thoughts and actions of its citizens. It also mobilizes the whole population in pursuit of its goals. The Nazi Germany, USSR under Joseph Stalin, China under Mao, North Korea are examples of the totalitarian states.
Features –
• A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole society, often involving a one-party state, a dictator and a personality cult.
• Totalitarian regimes stay in political power through such techniques as propaganda, state control of the mass media, educational system, economy, political repression, capital punishment, restriction of speech, and mass surveillance.
6) Republic – A republic is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. In modern sense, the term republic is commonly referred to a government which excludes a monarch. The term ‘republic’ in our Constitution indicates that India has an elected head called the President. He is elected indirectly for a fixed period of five years. Ancient Athens, Sparta, Roman Republic, Mahajanpadas in Ancient India, the US, France, Islamic Republic of Iran are some of the examples of the republic states.
Features –
• In the republican form of government, the political sovereignty is vested in the people and not in a single individual like a king.
• All the public offices are open to every citizen without any discrimination & there is absence of any privileged class.
7) Anarchism – Anarchism advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies. It can be taken as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.

National AYUSH Mission

India possess an unmatched heritage represented by its ancient systems of medicine like ASU&H which are a treasure house of knowledge for preventive and promotive healthcare. The positive features of the Indian systems of medicine namely their diversity and flexibility; accessibility; affordability, a broad acceptance by a large section of the general public; comparatively lesser cost and growing economic value, have great potential to make them providers of healthcare that the large sections of our people need.
The government of India has launched the National AYUSH Mission (NAM).
The proposed Mission will address the gaps in health services through supporting the efforts of State/UT Governments for providing AYUSH health services/education in the country, particularly in vulnerable and far-flung areas. Under NAM special focus will be given for specific needs of such areas and for allocation of higher resources in their Annual Plans.
The objective of the mission is to:
• To provide cost effective AYUSH Services, with a universal access through upgrading AYUSH Hospitals and Dispensaries, co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres (CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs).
• To strengthen institutional capacity at the state level through upgrading AYUSH educational institutions, State Govt. ASU&H Pharmacies, Drug Testing Laboratories and ASU & H enforcement mechanism.
• Support cultivation of medicinal plants by adopting Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) so as to provide sustained supply of quality rawmaterials and support certification mechanism for quality standards, Good Agricultural/Collection/Storage Practices.
• Support setting up of clusters through convergence of cultivation, warehousing, value addition and marketing and development of infrastructure for entrepreneurs.

Adaptations made for survival in Tropical Region

Every organism is suited to live in its particular habitat. Each organism is adapted to its particular environment. An adaptation is thus, “the appearance or behaviour or structure or mode of life of an organism that allows it to survive in a particular environment”.
Tropical region Basic characteristics:
• The tropical region lies very close to the equator; between 10°N and 10°S. So, it is referred to as the equatorial region.
• It is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year.
• The day temperatures are high with very high humidity. At night the temperature goes down but the humidity remains high.
• The forests are thick hence the dense “roof” created by leaves and branches does not allow the sunlight to reach the ground. The ground remains dark and damp.
• Only shade tolerant vegetation may grow here. Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites.
Tropical Rainforest Plant Adaptations
• Drip tips and waxy surfaces on the leaves allow water to run off  hence discourage growth of bacteria and fungi.
• Buttresses and prop and stilt roots help hold up plants in the shallow soil.
• Some plants climb on others to reach the sunlight.
• Some plants grow on other plants to reach the sunlight.
• Flowers on the forest floor are designed to lure animal pollinators since there is relatively no wind on the forest floor to aid in pollination.
• Smooth bark and smooth or waxy flowers speed the run off of water.
• Plants have shallow roots to help capture nutrients from the top level of soil which is rich in humus.
• Many bromeliads are epiphytes (plants that live on other plants); instead of collecting water with roots they collect rainwater into a central reservoir from which they absorb the water through hairs on their leaves
• Epiphytic orchids have aerial roots that cling to the host plant, absorb minerals, and absorb water from the atmosphere
Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations
• Many animals of the rainforest are camouflaged which aids them in avoiding predators.
• Some animals like the poison arrow frog produce toxins in their skin to ward off a predator. These animals are boldly colored as a warning for others to stay as far away as possible.
• Some animals have adaptations that enable them to eat food that other animals can’t. For example parrots have strong beaks that crack the shells of very hard nuts.
• Spider monkeys live in the upper canopy layers of rainforests, preferring undisturbed habitat, almost never coming to the ground. Their long limbs and strong tail are good examples of rainforest biome adaptations. They swing through the rainforest canopy and hang suspended by their tails. The powerful prehensile tail plays the role of a fifth arm and is often used for balance or just hanging out.
• Many tropical rainforest animals have a diet that includes a large amount of fruit which is available year round.


Jallikattu is a bull’s game day event happening in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations. Bulls are bred specifically by some private rich persons of the village& temples for the event.
Bullfighting was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country.Later, it became a platform for display of bravery and prize money was introduced for entertainment.
The event often results in major injuries and deaths with over 200 deaths over the past two decades.
Animal activists, the FIAPO (Federation of India Animal Protection Agencies) and PETA India have protested against the practice over the years.
The Animal Welfare Board of India has filed a case in the Supreme Court of India for an outright ban on Jallikattu because of the cruelty to animals and the threat to public safety involved. Protestors point out that Jallikattu is promoted as bull taming, but that there is no ‘taming’ involved at all. Jallikattu exploits the bulls’ natural nervousness as prey animals by deliberately placing them in a terrifying situation in which they are forced to run away from those they perceive as predators. The practice effectively involves catching a terrified animal, not taming it.

Animal Welfare Board: The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country. From ensuring that animal welfare laws in the country are diligently followed, to provide grants to Animal Welfare Organizations and advising the Government of India on animal welfare issues, the Board has been the face of the animal welfare movement in the country since 1962.The Board consists of 28 Members. The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals: PETA is the largest animal rights organization in the world, with more than 5 million members and supporters. PETA India focuses primarily on the areas in which the greatest numbers of animals suffer the most: in the food and leather industries, in laboratories and in the entertainment industry. PETA India’s investigative work, public education efforts, research, animal rescues, legislative work, special events, celebrity involvement and national media coverage have resulted in countless improvements to the quality of life for animals and have saved countless animals’ lives.
Federation of India Animal Protection Agencies: FIAPO’s main aim is to help connect up, and inform, animal protection organizations and activists across India. The aim is to strengthen animal protection by strengthening organizations themselves; not to become an “alternative” to existing organizations but on the contrary, to be an expression of their strength and an amalgam of their collective expertise and passion.

credits: iasscore


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