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Livestock Resources/Fisheries

Livestock Resources Fisheries Sector

Livestock Resources

Livestock is a natural capital that can act as a living bank with offspring as interest, and an insurance against income shocks in times of crop failure and natural calamities. Moreover, it provides nutrient-rich food products such as milk, meat, egg, draught power, dung as organic manure and domestic fuel, hides and skin, and is a regular source of cash income for rural households. In the recent decade, demand for various livestock based products has increased significantly due to increase in per-capita income, urbanization, changing taste and preference and increased awareness about food nutrition. Livestock sector is also considered as a potential sector for export earnings.

Dairy Sector
• India ranks first among the world’s milk producing Nations since 1998 and has the largest bovine population in the World.
• Milk production in India during the period 1950-51 to 2014-15, has increased from 17 million tonnes to 146.3 million tonnes as compared to 137.7 million tonnes during 2013-14 recording a growth of 6.26 % FAO reported 3.1% increase in world milk Production from 765 million tonnes in 2013 to 789 million tonnes in 2014.
• The per capita availability of milk in the country which was 130 gram per day during 1950-51 has increased to 322 gram per day in 2014-15 as against the world average of 293.7 grams per day during 2013.
• Dairying has become an important secondary source of income for millions of rural families and has assumed the most important role in providing employment and income generating opportunities particularly for marginal and women farmers.
• Most of the milk is produced by animals reared by small, marginal farmers and landless labourers.
• About 15.46 million farmers have been brought under the ambit of 165835 village level dairy corporative societies till March 2015.
• Government of India is making efforts for strengthening the dairy sector through various Central sector Schemes like “National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development”, National Dairy Plan (Phase-I) and “Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme”.
• The restructured Scheme National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBDD) was launched by merging four existing schemes i.e. Intensive Dairy Development Programme (IDDP), Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality & Clean Milk Production (SIQ&CMP), Assistant to Cooperatives and National Project for Cattle & Buffalo Breeding with the budget provision of Rs.1800 crores for implementation during 12th Plan.
• In order to meet the growing demand for milk with a focus to improve milch animal productivity and increase milk production, the Government has approved National Dairy Plan Phase-I (NDP-I) in February, 2012 with a total investment of about Rs.2242 crore to be implemented from 2011-12 to 2016-17. NDP-I will help to meet the projected national demand of 150 million tonnes of milk by 2016-17 from domestic production through productivity enhancement, strengthening and expanding village level infrastructure for milk procurement and provide producers with greater access to markets. The strategy involves improving genetic potential of bovines, producing required number of quality bulls, and superior quality frozen semen and adopting adequate bio-security measures etc.
• The scheme is implemented by NDDB through end implementing agencies like state Dairy Cooperative Federations/Unions/Milk Producers Companies. NDP-I would focus on 15 major milk producing States – Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Orissa and Kerala which account for over 90% of the country’s milk production. Now the area of Operation of NDP-I has been extended to three more states i.e. Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. Coverage of NDP- I will however be across the country in terms of benefits accruing from the scheme.
• India is emerging as the world’s 2nd largest poultry market with an annual growth of more than 14%, producing 61 million tonnes or 3.6 percent of global egg production.
• The annual growth rate of egg production is 5-8%. Apart from this, India ranks 6th in broiler production (125 billion Rupees) with an annual output of 2.39 million tonnes of broiler meat, as per the estimates of the Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India. The total poultry industry is valued at about 350 billion rupees.
• The per capita consumption per year is approx 2.4 kg, which is much lower than the National Institute of Nutrition’s recommendations of 1 1 kg.
Contribution of livestock to people:
The livestock provides food and non-food items to the people.
• Food: The livestock provides food items such as Milk, Meat and Eggs for human consumption. India is number one milk producer in the world. It is producing about 137.7 m. tones of milk in a year. Similarly it is producing about 74.75 billions of eggs, 8.89 million tonnes of meat in a year. The value of milk group and meat group at current prices was Rs 4,06,035 crores.
• Fibre and skins: The livestock also contributes to the production of wool, hair, hides, and pelts. Leather is the most important product which has a very high export potential. India is producing about 47.9 million Kg of wool per annum.
• Draft: Bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. Despite lot of advancements in the use of mechanical power in Indian agricultural operations, the Indian farmer especially in rural areas still depend upon bullocks for various agricultural operations. The bullocks are saving a lot on fuel which is a necessary input for using mechanical power like tractors, combine harvesters etc. Pack animals like camels, horses, donkeys, ponies, mules etc are being extensively used to transport goods in different parts of the country in addition to bullocks. In situations like hilly terrains mules and ponies serve as the only alternative to transport goods. Similarly, the army has to depend upon these animals to transport various items in high areas of high altitude.
• Dung and other animal waste materials: Dung and other animal wastes serve as very good farm yard manure and the value of it is worth several crores of rupees. In addition it is also used as fuel (bio gas, dung cakes), and for construction as poor man’s cement (dung).
• Storage: Livestock are considered as “moving banks” because of their potentiality to dispose off during emergencies. They serve as capital and in cases of landless agricultural labourers many time it is the only capital resource they possess. Livestock serve as an asset and in case of emergencies they serve as guarantee for availing loans from the local sources such as money lenders in the villages.
• Weed control: Livestock are also used as Biological control of brush, plants and weeds.
• Cultural: Livestock offer security to the owners and also add to their self esteem especially when they own prized animals such as pedigreed bulls, dogs and high yielding cows/ buffaloes etc.
• Sports / recreation: People also use the animals like cocks, rams, bulls etc. for competition and sports. Despite ban on these animal competitions the cock fights, ram fights and bull fights (jalli kattu) are quite common during festive seasons.
• Companion animals: Dogs are known for their faithfulness and are being used as companions since time immemorial. When the nuclear families are increasing in number and the old parents are forced to lead solitary life the dogs, cats are providing the needed company to the latter thus making them lead a comfortable life.
Role of livestock in farmer’s economy:
The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. The livestock serve the farmers in different ways.
• Income: Livestock is a source of subsidiary income for many families in India especially the resource poor who maintain few heads of animals. Cows and buffaloes if in milk will provide regular income to the livestock farmers through sale of milk. Animals like sheep and goat serve as sources of income during emergencies to meet exigencies like marriages, treatment of sick persons, children education, repair of houses etc. The animals also serve as moving banks and assets which provide economic security to the owners.
• Employment: A large number of people in India being less literate and unskilled depend upon agriculture for their livelihoods. But agriculture being seasonal in nature could provide employment for a maximum of 180 days in a year. The land less and less land people depend upon livestock for utilizing their labour during lean agricultural season.
• Food: The livestock products such as milk, meat and eggs are an important source of animal protein to the members of the livestock owners.
• Social security: The animals offer social security to the owners in terms of their status in the society. The families especially the landless which own animals are better placed than those who do not. Gifting of animals during marriages is a very common phenomenon in different parts of the country. Rearing of animals is a part of the Indian culture. Animals are used for various socio religious functions. Cows for house warming ceremonies; rams, bucks and chicken for sacrifice during festive seasons; Bulls and Cows are worshipped during various religious functions. Many owners develop attachment to their animals.
• Draft: The bullocks are the back bone of Indian agriculture. The farmers especially the marginal and small depend upon bullocks for ploughing, carting and transport of both inputs and outputs.
• Dung: In rural areas dung is used for several purposes which include fuel (dung cakes), fertilizer (farm yard manure), and plastering material (poor man’s cement).

Policies for development
This helps to connect farmers and breeders of bovine animals-
• The portal will act as a single online e-trading market platform, including availability of bovine germplasm.
• It will enable the farmers to buy bovine animals, frozen semen and embryo.
• e-pashuhaat portal will connect farmers with breeders- State, Central, Co-operative, Milk Federations, and private agencies.
• It will provide information related to certification of the animal, breeding, its picture, volume of milk given by the cow etc.
• It will facilitate farmers to purchase advanced breed of bovine animals at a reasonable price as per as their requirements.
• It will provide, certified picture of animals, its parent’s information, breeding, volume of milk given by bovine animal information.
• Besides, it will provide information related to animal fodder varieties, its volume and price. It will have real time authentic certified information on availability of germplasm.
B. Cattle Genomics Scheme:
• The scheme aims at boosting selective breeding of the native livestock more accurately to ensure high-yielding, disease-resistant, resilient livestock.
• Under it, government will undertake an ambitious project of genome sequencing of 40 registered indigenous cattle breeds of India.
• Besides, a high-density DNA chips will be developed under this scheme to reduce the cost and time interval of breeding of the native livestock.
• Genome selection will use information on variations in DNA sequences between animals to predict the breeding value more accurately.
• Thus, help to transform livestock breeding.
C. National Dairy Plan
The Scheme has two components: (a) National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB); (b) National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD).
National dairy plan phase- I:
• National Dairy Plan has been launched with the objective of increasing productivity of milch animals and providing rural producers greater access to organized milk processing sector and is being implemented by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).
D. Dairy Entrepreneurship Development:
• Its objective is to work for promotion of private investment in dairy sector to increase the milk production and helping in poverty reduction through self employment opportunities.
E. National Livestock Mission:
• National Livestock Mission (NLM) is being implemented with the objectives of sustainable development of livestock sector, focusing on improving availability of quality feed and fodder, risk coverage, effective extension, skill development, improving flow of credit and organization of livestock farmers/rearers, etc.
F. Central Poultry Development Organizations (CPDO)
• The CPDOs located at four regions viz., Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar, Mumbai and Hessarghatta have been playing a pivotal role in the implementation of the policies of the Government with respect to poultry.
G. Strengthening of Breeding Infrastructure:
• It aims at strengthening existing state poultry farms so as to enable the flow of suitable germplasm from the research institutions/laboratories to the grassroots level along with other technical services through capacity building of state poultry farms;
• developing and implementing package of practices at the ground level for different types of poultry system including family poultry system for supplementary income generation and family nutrition.

Constitutional Amendment Provisions

Provisions Related to the Amendment

Constitutional Amendment Provisions

Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. It states that the Parliament may, in exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down for the purpose.
The procedure for the amendment of the Constitution as laid down in Article 368 is as follows:
1. An amendment of the Constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and not in the state legislatures.
2. The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the president.
3. The bill must be passed in each House by a special majority, that is, a majority (that is, more than 50 per cent) of the total membership of the House and a majority of two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting.
4. Each House must pass the bill separately. In case of a disagreement between the two Houses, there is no provision for holding a joint sitting of the two Houses for the purpose of deliberation and passage of the bill.
5. If the bill seeks to amend the federal provisions of the Constitution, it must also be ratified by the legislatures of half of the states by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of the House present and voting.
6. After duly passed by both the Houses of Parliament and ratified by the state legislatures, where necessary, the bill is presented to the president for assent.
7. The president must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.2
8. After the president’s assent, the bill becomes an Act (i.e., a constitutional amendment act) and the Constitution stands amended in accordance with the terms of the Act.
The constitution can be amended through the following methods:
1. Amendments by Simple Majority (ordinary legislative process): A large number of provisions contained in the constitution are open to change by a simple majority. These may be divided into two classes.
(a) Where the text of the constitution is not altered but the law is changed. Article 11 confers on the Parliament power to enact a law regarding citizenship. An Act made in pursuance of that power will change the law relating to citizenship without altering the text of Article 5 to 10. Article 124 still refers to the Supreme Court as consisting of the Chief justice and 7 judges. But in exercise of its power the Parliament has increased the strength of the judges from 7 to 25.
(b) Where the text of the constitution is changed:
1. Formation of new state.
2. Creation or abolition of legislative council
3. Creation of council of ministers for Union territories
4. Extending the period of 15 years fixed for the use of English in Article 343.
5. Defining Parliamentary privileges [Article 105(3)]
6. Salaries and allowances of President, Vice-President, Judges, etc.
2. Amendments requiring special majority only: Except those provisions which are amendable by an ordinary majority, the rest of the provisions require a special majority for amendment. The Amendment Bill must be passed by a majority of two-thirds of the members of each House present and voting and such majority must exceed 50% of the total membership of the House.
3. Amendments requiring special majority and ratification by States: Those provisions which relate to the federal structure of the constitution require special majority in Parliament as well as ratification by at least half of the state legislatures. This procedure is required in the following provisions:
(a) Manner of election of President
(b) Executive power of the Union and the State
(c) The Supreme Court and the High Courts
(d) Distribution of legislative power between the Union and the States
(e) Representation of states in Parliament
(f) Article 368 itself
Apart from these provisions for formal amendments of the constitution, the constitution also gets amended through constitutional practices, conventions and by judicial interpretation. Judicial interpretation has played especially important role in our constitution insofar as the Supreme Court has held that the basic structure or framework of the constitution cannot be changed by an amendment and court’s power to examine whether that limit has been exceeded have been held to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution.

Reservation for Women in Forces

Reservation for Women in Forces

It is well accepted that a society or a nation can progress rapidly in an equitable manner if and only if women are provided equal opportunities to participate in social, political and economic activities. The police is the first line of interface between citizens and the Governmental law enforcement machinery. It has been observed that many women do not approach the police, as they may have to confide or report the incident to a male police officer. This is particularly so in respect of sex related crimes. A skewed police force with adequate gender representation is a major practical barrier in effective implementation of legislation intended for the protection of women.
The Union Cabinet gave its approval for making reservation of 33 percent for women, horizontally and in each category (SC/ST/OBC and others) in direct recruitment in non-gazetted posts from Constables to sub-inspector in the police forces of all Union Territories, including Delhi Police.
This decision will help in augmenting the representation of the women in the police forces of all UTs and Delhi Police so as to make the police more gender sensitive. It will also instill confidence among women to enable them to approach the police without hesitation for seeking protection and assistance as and when required.

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan envisages to improve the quality and coverage of Antenatal Care (ANC), Diagnostics and Counselling services as part of the Reproductive Maternal Neonatal Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) Strategy.
Under the Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan, the pregnant ladies will be given free health check-up and required treatment for free on 9th of every month. The scheme will be applicable for pregnant women to avail in all Government hospitals across the country.
• Provide a healthy life to the pregnant women
• Lowering the maternity mortality rate
• Making pregnant women aware of their health issues/diseases.
• Making sure safe delivery and healthy life of the baby
Main features of Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan
• The scheme is applicable only for the pregnant women in their pregnancy period of 3 to 6 months.
• The free checkup will take place on 9th of every month.
• All kinds of medical checkups under this scheme will be completely free.
• Tests will took place at the medical centers, government and private hospitals and private clinics across the country.
• Women will be marked differently based on their health problems so that doctors can easily detect the problem.



UGC and AICTE are two apex organisations that cater for the higher studies in India.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) is a statutory organization established by an Act of Parliament in 1956 for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education.

• Apart from providing grants to eligible universities and colleges, the Commission also advises the Central and State Governments on the measures which are necessary for the development of Higher Education.
• It functions from New Delhi as well as its six Regional offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.
• UGC approves universities in the country. It provides funds for affiliated universities and colleges. When talking about the function of the University Grants Commission, the UGC ACT says that, the first function is to look into the financial needs of universities. It then allocates and disburses grants to these universities. Well, the other academic functions come only after these functions.
• UGC, along with CSIR currently conducts NET for appointments of teachers in colleges and universities. It has made NET qualification mandatory for teaching at Graduation level and at Post Graduation level since July 2009. However, those with Ph.D are given five percent relaxation.
Accreditation for higher learning over Universities under the aegis of University Grants Commission is overseen by following fifteen autonomous statutory institutions:
• All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
• Distance Education Council (DEC)
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
• Bar Council of India (BCI)
• National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
• Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
• Medical Council of India (MCI)
• Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
• Indian Nursing Council (INC)
• Dental Council of India (DCI)
• Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH)
• Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
• National Council for Rural Institutes (NCRI)
• State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE)
• Council of Architecture.
• In 1976, the Union Minister of Education made open the government of India’s plans to close down UGC and the related body All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), in favour of a higher regulatory body with more sweeping powers. This goal, proposed by the Higher Education and Research (HE&R) Bill, 2011, intends to replace the UGC with a “National Commission for Higher Education & Research (NCHER) for determination, coordination, maintenance and continued enhancement of standards of higher education and research.
• The bill proposes absorbing the UGC and other academic agencies into this new organisation. Those agencies involved in medicine and law would be exempt from this merger “to set minimum standards for medical and legal education leading to professional practice”.
• The bill has received opposition from the local governments of the Indian states of Bihar, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, but has received general support. UGC has directed ten institutions to immediately shut down their off-campus centres.
• In December 2015 the Indian government set a National Institutional of Ranking Framework under UGC which will rank all educational institutes by April 2016. UGC has suggested to all Universities in India to set up an Online Admission System from the academic session commencing in 2016-2017.
• Recently UGC has released 22 fake universities, 9 are from Uttar Pradesh, 5 from Delhi, 2 from West Bengal and one each from Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Odisha.
Whereas, The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD).

Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament. However, UGC was formally inaugurated by the Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research Minister, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, in 1953.
• The AICTE is only a statutory body, which deals with co-ordinated development and proper planning of the technical education system in the country. All the Engineering, MBA and Pharmacy colleges are affiliated with the All India Council for Technical Education.
• AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India. The AICTE accredits postgraduate and graduate programs under specific categories at Indian institutions as per its charter.
• The AICTE ACT gives priority to undertaking surveys in various fields of technical education at all levels. The funds’ allocation and disbursement comes second to this.
• It is assisted by 10 Statutory Boards of Studies, namely, UG Studies in Eng. & Tech., PG and Research in Eng. and Tech., Management Studies, Vocational Education, Technical Education, Pharmaceutical Education, Architecture, Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Information Technology, Town and Country Planning.
• The AICTE has its new headquarters building in Delhi which has the offices of the chairman, vice-chairman and the member secretary, plus it has regional offices at Kanpur, Chandigarh, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Bhopal, Baroda, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai and Thiruvananthapuram.
As per the Supreme Court judgment, “as per provisions of the AICTE Act and University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, the council has no authority which empowers it to issue or enforce any sanctions on colleges affiliated with the universities as its role is to provide guidance and recommendations.
Subsequently, AICTE was getting approval from the Supreme court to regulate technical colleges on a year to year basis till January 2016, when AICTE got blanket approval for publishing the Approval Process Handbook and approve technical colleges including management for the session 2016-17 and in all future sessions.
The AICTE comprises following bureaus, namely:
• E-Governance (e-Gov) Bureau
• Approval (AB) Bureau
• Planning and Co-ordination (PC) Bureau and Academic (Acad) Bureau
• University (UB) Bureau
• Administration (Admin) Bureau
• Finance (Fin) Bureau
• Research, Institutional and Faculty Development (RIFD) Bureau
• Apart from this there are 10 Board of Studies dealing with technician, vocational, undergraduate engineering, postgraduate engineering and research, architecture, town and country planning, pharmacy, management, applied arts and crafts, hotel management and catering technology education.
• For each bureau, adviser is the bureau head who is assisted by technical officers and other supporting staff. The multidiscipline technical officer and staff of the Council are on deputation or on contract from government departments, University Grants Commission, academic institutions, etc.
In 2016 three important initiatives were taken up by AICTE:
• A responsibility given by MHRD to evolve a national MOOCs platform ‘SWAYAM’.
• Launching a Smart India Hackathon-2017 challenging the young bright talented students of technical colleges to solve the 598 problems of 29 different Government departments.
• Launching of an AICTE’s Student Start up Policy by Hon. President on November 16, during visitors conference from ‘Rashtrapati Bhavan’.
In 2009, the Union Minister of Education formally communicated his intentions of closing down AICTE and related body, the University Grants Commission (UGC).
This later led to reforms in the way the AICTE approves institutes, and to establishing the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) as an independent body. As of 2013 the AICTE still operates.
The UGC is free to do whatever it likes but AICTE is not free from the intervention of the Human Resources Development Ministry.


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