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Mineral Resource

Mineral Resources

Mineral Resource

• India is endowed with a rich variety of mineral resources due to its varied geological structure.
• On the basis of chemical and physical properties, minerals may be grouped under two main categories of metallics and non-metallics.
• Metallic minerals are the sources of metals. Iron ore, copper, gold produce metal and are included in this category. Metallic minerals are further divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals. All those minerals which have iron content are ferrous such as iron ore itself and those which do not have iron content are non-ferrous such as copper, bauxite, etc.
• Non-metallic minerals are either organic in origin such as fossil fuels also known as mineral fuels which are derived from the buried animal and plant life such as coal and petroleum. Other type of non-metallic minerals are inorganic in origin such as mica, limestone and graphite, etc.
                                                                   Mineral Belts of India
(1) North-Eastern Peninsular Belt:
• It is the richest mineral belt of India.
• Comprises of Chotanagpur plateau and Orissa plateau in Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa.
• The Chhotanagpur plateau is known as the mineral heart land of India, also Ruhr of India.
• It contains large quantities of coal, iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, Copper, Chromites, and Kyanite.
(2) Central Belt:
• It is the 2nd largest mineral belt of India.
• Comprises of Chhattisgarh, M.P, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
• It has large deposits of Manganese, bauxite, limestone, marble, coal, gems (Panna), mica, iron ore, graphite, etc.
(3) Southern Belt:
• It comprises mostly of Karnataka plateau and contiguous T.N. upland.
• It lacks coal deposits except lignite at Neyveli (T.N.).
• It is more or less similar to northeastern peninsular belt as far as deposits of ferrous minerals and bauxite is concerned.
(4) South-Western Belt:
• Southern Karnataka & Goa are included.
• It has deposits of iron-ore and clay.
(5) North-West Belt:
• Extends along the Aravallis in Rajasthan and in adjoining parts of Gujarat.
• Important minerals – Copper, lead, zinc, Uranium, mica, bauxite, gypsum, manganese, salt.
(6) The Indian Ocean
• Along with availability of petroleum and natural gas in the off shore areas the sea bed contains manganese nodules, phosphorite nodules and barium sulphate concentration
• The best quality nodules are found in water depths of more than 4000m.
• Phosphate nodules are mainly found near Andaman Islands.
Distribution of minerals in India
– India has the vast resources of iron ore, 20% of total world reserves not only quantitatively but qualitatively too as it contain iron upto 65% and sulphur never above 0.6%.
– Ore-Types
a) Haematite- Iron content up to 86%; of Dharwar & Chuddapah system of peninsular India; also called “Red Ores”; contribute about 85% of total production.
b) Magnetite- Iron content of 60%; of Dharwar & Chuddapah system of peninsula; also called “Block Ores”; contribute about 8% of total production.
c) Limonite- Iron content of 30-50%; prominent constituent of laterite; contribute 7% of total production.
– Occurance
a) Orissa– Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Sundergarh, Cuttak, Karaput.
b) Jharkhand– Singahbhum- Notu- Buru, Noamundi, Ansira Baru, Brajamda, Gua, Sasangda.
c) M.P– Bastar- Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri; Durg- Dhalli-Rajhara.
d) Goa (Black iron /Magnetite): North Goa: Pirna- Adolpale- Asnora; Central Goa: Tolsai- Dongarvado; South- Goa: Borgadongar, Netarlim,.
e) Karnataka: Bellary (Sandur-Hos­pet area), Chikmanglur, Kemman­gundi(in Bababudan Hills), Kudremukh, Shimonga.
f) Andhra Pradesh: Jaggayapeta, Ramallakota, Veldurti, Nayudu­petta, Baygarm.
g) T.N.: Coimbatore— Madurai, Tiru­nelveli, Ramnathpuram districts.
h) Maharashtra– Chandrapur, Ratnagiri.
– In India a major part of its deposit occurs in the form of sedimentary stratified metamorphic deposits of Gondite & Kodurite series in the Dharwar system of Peninsula which holds 90% of total reserves. India is the 3rd largest producer.
– Ore-Types:
a) Psilomelane : It has-manganese content around 50%.
b) Bronite: Manganese content varies between 52-54%.
c) Manganite : Manganese content’s less than 50%.
d) Hosmanite: Manganese content is less than 40%.
e) Polianite: Manganese content is less than 40%.
a) Orissa: Sundargarh, Kalahandi (Nishi­khal), Koraput (Kutinga), Bolangir, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj.
b) Maharashtra: Nagpur (Kodergaon, Gumgaon, Ramdongiri), Bhandara, Ratnagiri.
c) Karnakata: Shimoga, Chitradurga, Tumkur, Bellary, N. kanara.
d) Andhra Pradesh: Srikakulam, Visakha­patnam
e) M.P.: Balaghat, Chindwara, Jhabua, Jabalpur.
f) Gujarat: Panchmahal.
g) Jharkhand: Singhbhum.
– Used for producing “Dasomium” which is used for producing stainless steel.
– Occurance
a) Orissa: Contributes 90% of the country’s total production, main centers are Sukinda (between Daiteri & Mahagiri Range) in cuttak, Nausahi in Keonjhar.
b) Karnataka: 2nd largest producer.
c) Maharashtra
d) Jharkhand: Singhbhum
e) T.N.: 96% of cromite is exported to Japan and the rest to Australia.
– Occurance
a) Jharkhand- Sahabad (Amjhor, Kasisiyakoh, Kurriari).
b) T.N. – Arcot (Polur), Nilgiri (Pandalur- Devala- Nadghani region).
c) Karnataka – N. Kanara (Kaiga), Chittradurga (Indldhal).
d) Himachal Pradesh – Ashmi river.
e) Rajasthan- Sikar.
f) Meghalaya- Khasi, Jaintia.
– It is a silvery metal which does not gather rust. It is therefore, much useful for plating purposes.
– Hardness and high malleability, high tensible strength, great elasticity, and resistance to abrasion, shock and corrosion are its special qualities. Nickel is therefore, largely used in ornament, aircraft, automobiles, industrial machinery etc.
– Occurrence in India
a) Cuttak & Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa have the major reserves of Nickel. The total reserves is of 5.8% crore tonnes of which 4.08 crore tonnes are in Kausa block and 1.5% crore tonnes in Saruabil – Sukaragi area. Sirkinda is another famous mine.
b) Some amount is also produced in Maharashtra, J&K, M.P.
c) India imports nickel to fulfill its domestic demand.
– Its importance is due to the toughness, strength, hardness, and resistance to abrasion which it engenders in tool steels which retain their strength and efficiency at very high temperatures (3375°C) and speed. Tungsten carbide is a substance second only to diamond in hardness.
– Tungsten, also known as ‘high speed steel’, is highly desirable for valves in internal-combustion engines. It is also used in cold chisels, hack saws, files, razor blades, springs, armour plate, and armourpiercing shells.
– The most important and known use of tungsten is as a filament in electric light bulbs. Tungsten has high electric resistance and a very high melting point which allows a high degree of efficiency in the conversion of electricity into light.
– Principal Ore: Wol-framite and schedite.
– Occurance- Deganal near Rawat Hills in Rajasthan.
– These deposit are mainly associated with laterite soil, formed in the Tertiary period.
– Up to 1988 India was an importer of aluminium but in 1993 India has become an important exporter of alumina, mainly to Italy, Germany, U.k., Japan.
– India contributes 14% of the world’s output which is second largest in the world after Australia.
– Occurrence
a) M.P.: Amarkantak Plateau- Sargujar, Raigarh, Bilaspur; Maikala Range – Balaghat; Katni Range – Jabalpur.
b) Jharkhand: Palamu, Lohardagga, Ranchi, Sahabad (Netarhat Plateau).
c) Gujarat: Jamnagar, Khaira, Kutch.
d) Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Kolaba, Satara, Ratnagiri,
e) Karnataka: Belgaum (Karle Hills, Jamboti, Bakur- Navge- Ridge)
f) T.N.: Salem, Nilgiri, Madurai ( Palni Hills, Kodaikanal Hills), Coimbatone (Sandabkuli).
g) Goa: Quepem, Canacora.
– The development of electrical industries gave rise to unprecedented growth of copper industry, because of its conductivity of electrical energy, ductibility, and malleability.
– Copper plays a basic role in modem facilities for light; power and heat, in telephone, telegraph, and radio, in automobiles, railroad equipment, aeroplanes, and ships in refrigerators and other household appliances, and in weapons.
– It is also used for roofing, plumbing, hardware, utensils, jewellery, and decorative items.
– Copper occurs in three forms: (i) as native metal, in igneous rocks; (ii) as oxides and (iii) as sulphides. Although, sulphides have very little copper content (1 to 3 per cent), yet, 90% of the world’s total output is obtained as sulphides.
– Porphyries or pyrites rocks contain sulphides and oxides of copper. Copper minerals occur mostly in veins, therefore, the ore as mined contains a high percentage of rock material known as ‘gangue’.
– Copper ores in India are found as sulphides (Chalcopyrite, Chalcocite , Bronite), Oxide (Cuprite) and Carbanates (Malachite & Azurite).
– They generally occur in veins and in peninsular India in highly metamorphosed rocks.
– Occurance
a) Jharkhand – Singhbhum ( 50% of total country’s reserves at Mosabani, Rakha, Dhobani, Rajdah, Surdah, Pathargara, Tamapahar, Turamdih), Lota- pahar- Fault.
b) Rajasthan – Khetri- Singhana Area (Kolihan, Mandhan, Akwali, Berkhera), Kho- Dariba Area, Delwara- Kerovle Area.
c) M.P. – Balaghat (Malanjkhand, Madarkhand)
– The chief use of zinc is for galvanizing or coating iron and-steel to ‘make it resistant to rust.
– Another important use of zinc is in the form of alloys, for die casting, in which the molten metal is cast in steel dies to form small automobile and machinery parts and hardware items of various shape.
– The major zinc material is sphalerite a combination of zinc and sulphur. Zinc content of ores generally ranges from 2 to over 12 percent.
– It can be easily rolled or hammered into sheets, but unlike copper or iron, it lacks ductility, so it cannot be drawn out into wire.
– Its resistance to corrosion makes it exceptionally valuable for plumbing fixtures, storage batteries and for cable, widely used in telegraph and telephone industries.
– Galena, a combination of lead and sulphur is the principal ore of lead. Cerussite and anglesite are the other important lead minerals.
– Occurance
a) Rajasthan – Zawar deposit of Udaipur(Mochia-Mogra,Balaria, Zawarmala,Baroi,Baba-Hill), Taragarh Hill area (lead ore), Ajmer (Taragarh, Ganeshpura, sawar), Alwar (Jodhawas).
b) Andhra Pradesh – Zangamarajupalle (in Chuddapah district)
c) Bihar – Bhagalpur (Dudiar, Gauripur)
d) Jharkhand – Hazaribagh (Hatasu, Parasia), Santhal. Paragana (Panchpahar, Bhairkuhi, Sankera)
– Gold is used extensively for jewelley and many other articles, and smaller amounts are used in dentistry the making of glass and porcelain, in dyes, in medicine; and in other industries.
– Generally found in veins or reefs of quartz and sometime associated with iron & Copper sulphides.
– Gold occurs in nature as native gold. It may be found as a constituent of solid rock (a lode deposit), as flakes, grains, or nuggets of native gold in sands and gravels (a placer deposit) eroded from the original merit-rock.
– Shaft tunnel mining is required in the first case, whereas placer mining is used in the second. Rich gold ores may contain 4 to 6 ounces of gold per tonne.
– Occurance
a) Karnataka- Kolar Gold field/KGF (since 1871 when mining first started in Ooregum mines, Marikuppam quartz vein bearing gold, Champion, Nandidroog, Mysore),Hutti, Topuldedi, wondalli.
b) Andhra Pradesh- Ramagiri Gold field (Ananta­puram district).
c) Jharkhand- alluvial gold in the beds of Garra-Nadi, S-Koyel, Sanjai, Sona-Nadi, Subarnarekha rivers in Singhbhum district.
d) Kolar & Hutti goldfields all together produce 98% of total country production.
– In Nature, silver mostly occurs as sulphides. It rarely occurs in pure form. It is often mixed with zinc blende, galena (lead), and copper pyrites.
– It is used for making coins, jewellery, and decorative items, in silver plating, electroplating, and in several other industries.
– Occurance
a) Produced as by product during the smelting of galana, also produced from lead ore of Kurnool, Cuddapah and Guntur of Andhra, Singhbhum & Ranchi of Jharkhand and Vadodara of Gujarat. Quartzites of Mysore gold field and cupriferous pyrites of Chitradurga are also yield some amount of silver.
– There are several kinds of mica, important being muscovite (white colour), phlogopite (yellow colour), and biotite (black coloured).
– The two important ores found in India are Muscovite and Biotite.
– It is non conductor therefore, makes an ideal electrical insulator. It is used in the electrical industry and hardly has it had a substitute.
– Occurance
a) Jharkhand- A belt existing over 150 km in length and 20-22 km in width from Gaya in west through Hajaribag and Mungar districts to Bhargalpur districts in the east; Kodarma, Damchanch, Maenodils, Parsabad, Tisri, Mohesari, Chakai are the main centres. Kodarma is the world largest Mica market. Ruby – mica & Bangal- mica,which is of high quality is found in Jharkhand.
b) Andhra Pradesh- Gudur , Sangam & Nellore are the main producing regions of Green- mica, also called Electrical- mica (lightest of all types).
c) Rajasthan- chief mining centres are Barla, Naukhand. Sohlenwara, Barani, Palmin in Tonk and Jaipur districts. Bhilwara is also the important centre. In Rajasthan green or pink colour high quality mica is found.
– Consumption of limestone in the country: Cement industry 67% (of higher silica content limestone); Iron & steel industry – 16% and Chemical industry- 4%.
– Types of Limestone and their Distribution
A. Cement-Grade Limestone
a) Andhra Pradesh – (13 of total reserves)- Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, Khammam, Kurnool, Godavari
b) Karnataka-(1/3 of total reserves) Gulbarga, Bija-pur, Shimoga.
c) Gujarat- (13% of total reserves)- Junagarh, Amreli, Kutch, Banas- Kantha, Surat.
d) Rajasthan – (6% of total reserves) – Ajmer, Jaipur, Pali, Madhopur, Banswara, Jodhpur, Bundi
B. Flux-Grade Limestone
a) M.P- (36% of the total reserves)- Belaspur, Jabalpur, Rewa, Satna, Raipur.
b) Meghalaya- (30% of the total reserves) Khasi & Jaintia Hillls.
– Cryostile and Amphibole varieties of asbestos are found in India.
– Asbestos has the fibrous structure and has a great economic importance as it has the capacity to be separated quickly into fine filaments of high tensile strength and its great resistance to fire.
– State-wise Production as % of total production – Rajasthan> Andhra > Karnataka.
– Occurrence
a) Rajasthan- Ajmer, Bhilwara, Dungarpur, Pali, Sirohi, Udaipur.
b) Karnataka- Gopalpur, Mavinhalli, Hassan, Mandya, Shimoga, Chikmanglur.
c) Andhra Pradesh- Cudapah, Anantapur, Mehbubnagar.
d) Jharkhand- Singhbhum, West Bengal, Purulia.
– Used in the manufacturing of bricks, refracting fitting for the electrical appliances.
– Occurrence
a) Meghalaya- Sonapahar, Nagpur, Nangbain in the Nongtoin area.
b) M.P.- Sidhi & Reewa.
c) Maharashtra- Bhawara, Nagpur.
d) T.N.- Coimbatore, South Arcot.
e) Kerala- Palghat, Kottayam.
– India has the largest reserves of Kyanite in the world.
– Occurrence
a) Jharkhand- A belt extending from Lapsa Buru to Kharasawan in Saraikala. with the important mines at Lapsa-Buru, Ghagidih, Bachia- Bakro & Mauy aluka.
b) Maharashtra- Pahergaon & Pipalgaon in Sakohi Tehsil and Gorkha- Buranga and Asvalpain in Bhandara districts.
– About 75% of total salt produced in India is manufactured from saline sea- water by the process of solar evaporation.
– Production as % of total production-Gujarat> T.N.>Rajasthan.
– Occurrence India
a) Sea-salt- Mithapur, Jamnagar, Dharsana, Okha, Bulsar in Gujarat; Bhandrup, Uran, Bhayandar in Maharashtra; Madras & Taticorin in T.N.
b) Salt- lake- Sambhar, Didwana, Pach­bhadra, Lankaesara lakes in Rajasthan.
c) Rock-salt- mined at present in Mandi District at Drang & Guna in Himachal Pradesh.
– In the South-west tip of India on the Kerala and T.N. cost,an extremely rich minerals like Ilmenite and Monazite.
– Ilmenite- from Quilon to Kanyakumari
– Ilmenite and Rutire are by- products in the extraction of monazites.
                                                   Problems posed by mineral resources
• Depletion of Mineral
• Rapidly growing mining activity has rendered large agricultural tracts almost useless.
• Miners have to work under most hazardous conditions.
• Many mineral producing areas lead to air and water pollution.
• Huge displacement of tribal people.
                                                            Conservation of mineral resources
• New researches should be undertaken to find out and develop replacement minerals for use in place of scarce minerals which are in short supply and are going to be depleted soon.
• Researches should be carried on to develop new technology which should avoid wastage and promote maximum utilization of by- products
• There should be curbing on wastage mining methods that deplete the environment too
• Use of alternate sources of energy like solar energy, hydroelectric energy, etc.
• Walking on a path that leads to sustainable development.
• Use of renewable sources of energy.
• Avoid over-exploitation of the mineral resources.
• Use of biogas as a fuel for cooking instead of the non-renewable sources of energy.
                                                            Sustainable mining
Sustainable mining is defined as “Mining that is financially viable; socially responsible; environmentally, technically and scientifically sound; with a long term view of development; uses mineral resources optimally; and, ensures sustainable post-closure land uses. Also one based on creating long-term, genuine, mutually beneficial partnerships between government, communities and miners, based on integrity, cooperation and transparency”.
It includes:
• Mining operations that have a broad-based social license to operate- creating lasting social and economic wealth which will outlast the life of the mine.
• Environmentally, technically and scientifically sound implying proper management of natural resources.
• Uses mineral resources optimally.

Political Parties/Electoral System

Political Parties in India Electoral System in India

Political Parties in  India

A political party is generally described as an organized body of people who share common principles and cherish certain common goals regarding the political system. A political party operates and seeks political power through constitutional means to translate its policies into practice. It is a body of like-minded people having similar views on matters of public concern.
Following can be identified as the main characteristics of political parties:
• A political party is an organized group of people;
• The organized group of people believe in common principles and common goals;
• Its objectives revolve around seeking political power through collective efforts;
• It employs constitutional and peaceful methods in seeking control over the government through elections; and
• While in power, it translates its declared objectives into governmental policies
The functions performed by the political parties, especially in the context of India, are as under:
• They nominate candidates during elections;
• They campaign to obtain support for their candidates in the elections;
• They place objectives and programmes before the voters through their manifestos;
• Those securing the majority in elections form the government and enact and implement the policies;
• Those not in power form opposition and keep a constant check on the government;
• They form opposition when they are in minority in the legislature and constantly put pressure on the government for proper governance;
• They educate people and help in formulating and shaping public opinion;
• They articulate peoples’ demands and convey them to the government; and
• They provide a linkage between people and governmental institutions
Types of Political parties
Political parties in India are classified by the Election Commission for the allocation of symbols. The Commission classifies parties into three main heads: National Parties, State Parties, and Registered (unrecognized) Parties.
A political party shall be treated as a recognised political party in a State, if and only if either the conditions specified in Clause (A) are, or the condition specified in Clause (B) is, fulfilled by that party and not otherwise, that is to say-
(A) that such party –
• Has been engaged in political activity for a continuous period of five years; and
• Has, at the last general election in that State to the House of the People, or, as the case may be, to the Legislative Assembly of the State, returned-
either (i) at least one member to the House of the People for every twenty-five members of that House or any fraction of that number from that State;
or (ii) at least one member to the Legislative Assembly of that State for every thirty members of that Assembly or any fraction of that number;
(B) That the total number of valid votes polled by all the contesting candidates set up by such party at the last general election in the State to the House of the People, or as the case may be, to the Legislative Assembly of the State, is not less than six per cent of the total number of valid votes polled by all the contesting candidates at such general election in the State.
1. The conditions in Clause (A) or Clause (B) above shall not be deemed to have been fulfilled by a political party, if a member of the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State becomes a member of that political party after his election to that House or, as the case may be, that Assembly.
2. ‘State’ includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry.
3. If a political party is treated as a recognised political party in four or more States, it shall be known as a `National Party’ throughout the whole of India, but only so long as that political party continues to fulfill thereafter the conditions for recognition in four or more States on the results of any subsequent general election either to the House of the People or to the Legislative Assembly of any State.
4. If a political party is treated as a recognised political party in less than four States, it should be known as a `State Party’ in the State or States in which it is so recognised, but only so long as that political party continues to fulfill there after the conditions for recognition on the results of any subsequent general election to the House of the People or, as the case may be, to the Legislative Assembly of the State, in the said State or States.
Issues in the working of political parties
• The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties. All over the world there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top. Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold organisational meetings, and do not conduct internal elections regularly. Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party. They do not have the means or the connections needed to influence the decisions. As a result the leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the party. Since one or few leaders exercise paramount power in the party, those who disagree with the leadership find it difficult to continue in the party. More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important.
• The second challenge of dynastic succession is related to the first one. Since most political parties do not practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning, there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members. In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unfair to other members of that party. This is also bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power. This tendency is present in some measure all over the world, including in some of the older democracies.
• The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections. Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections. They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections. Democrats all over the world are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics.
Thus law is needed to curb the growth of valueless politics.

“Kendriya and Navodaya Vidyalaya”

Kendriya and Navodaya Vidyalaya

Kendriya Vidyalaya is a system of central government schools under the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
The objectives are:
i. To cater to the educational needs of children of transferable Central Government including Defence and Para-military personnel by providing a common programme of education;
ii. To pursue excellence and set the pace in the field of school education;
iii. To initiate and promote experimentation and innovations in education in collaboration with other bodies like the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) etc. and
iv. To develop the spirit of national integration and create a sense of ‘Indianness’ among children.
They follow the CBSE curriculum. As on date, there are 1115 functional schools with 1175595 students.
On the other hand, Navodya Vidyalayas were established with the primary objective to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominantly from the rural areas, comparable to the best in a residential school system, without regard to their family’s socio-economic condition.
Navodaya Vidyalayas are run by the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of School Education and Literacy, Govt. of India. The Chairman of the Samiti is the Hon’ble Minister of Human Resource Development.



The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards, 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments. FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
FSSAI has been mandated by the FSS Act, 2006 for performing the following functions:
• Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards thus notified.
• Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses.
• Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories.
• To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition.
• Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system.
• Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern.
• Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses.
• Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
• Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.

Central Water Commission

Central Water Commission

• The Central Water Commission is the apex technical organisation in the country for development of water resources and is attached organization of the Ministry of Water Resources.
• The Commission is responsible for initiating, coordinating and furthering, in consultation with the State Governments, the schemes for control, conservation, development and utilization of water resources throughout the country for the purpose of irrigation, flood management, power generation, navigation etc.
• Implementation of the National Water Policy is another important concern of the Commission.
• Over the years, the Commission has developed the technological knowhow in planning, investigation, appraisal, design and construction of projects, monitoring and management of projects, hydrological observations and flood forecasting.
• Central Water Commission has presence in almost all the aspects of water resources development and management.
• The main functions of Central Water Commission being discharged through its India?wide field basin oriented setup are –
a) Hydrological observations and studies,
b) Maintaining water resources information system for each river basin,
c) Providing assistance in regulation and development of inter?state rivers,
d) Issuing flood/inflow forecasts,
e) Carrying out techno?economic appraisal of projects,
f) Taking up survey and investigation of projects on request,
g) Providing design consultancy, and
h) Advising and assisting the Government of India on related matters.

Sai Praveen

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