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Industry


Industry

Industry

Industry implies the transformation of existent materials into something new, into goods that are used as end-products themselves, or are utilized to manufacture more goods.
Industries can be classified into several groups. A brief account is given below:

1. On the basis of strength of Labour:
(i) Large-scale Industries
(ii) Medium-scale Industries
(iii) Small-scale Industries
2. On the basis of Raw Material and Finished Goods:
(i) Heavy Industries: Industries, which use heavy and bulky raw materials and produce products of the same category, are called heavy industries. Iron and steel industry presents a good example of heavy industries.
(ii) Light Industries: The light industries use light raw materials and produce similar finished products. Textile industry, electronics, fans, sewing machines are light industries.
3. On the basis of Ownership: Since the beginning of the planned development of Indian economy in 1951, industries are divided into the following three classes:
(i) Private Sector Industries: Industries owned by individuals or firms such as Bajaj Auto or TISCO situated at Jamshedpur are called private sector industries.
(ii) Public Sector Industries: Industries owned by the state and its agencies, like Bharat heavy Electricals Ltd. or Bhilai Steel Plant or Durgapur Steel Plant and Integral Coach Factory at Kapurthala are public sector industries.
(iii) Joint Sector Industries: Industries owned jointly by the private firms and the state or its agencies, such as Gujarat alkalies Ltd. or Oil India Ltd., fall in the group of joint sector industries.
4. On the basis of source of Raw Material:
(i) Agro-based Industries: Agro-based industries are those industries which obtain raw material from agriculture. Cotton textile, jute textile, silk, sugar, vegetable oil and paper industry are representative industries of agro-based group of industries.
(ii) Mineral-based Industries: The industries that receive raw material primarily from minerals such as iron and steel, aluminium and cement industries fall in this category.
(iii) Pastoral-based Industries: These industries depend upon animals for their raw material. Hide, skin, bone, horn, shoes, dairy, etc., are some of the pastoral-based industries.
(iv) Forest-based Industries: The industries which use forest products as their raw materials are known as forest-based industries. Paper, card-board, lac, rayon, resin, basket, etc. are examples of forest based industries:
5. Miscellaneous Industries: Industries can also be classified into the following categories:
(i) Village industries: Village industries are located in villages and primarily cater to the needs of the rural people. They usually employ local machinery such as oil extractor, flour-grinding and agricultural implements.
(ii) Cottage Industries: Industries which artisans set up in their own houses, work with wood, cane, brass, stone, etc., are called cottage industries. Handloom Khadi and leather work at the artisans’ house fall in this category.
(iii) Consumer Industries: Consumer industries convert raw materials or primary products into commodities directly used by the people. Textile industry, bakeries, etc., are some of the consumer industries.
(iv) Basic Industries: Industries, on which depend many other industries for their manufacturing processes, are called basic industries. Iron and steel industry and power generating industry are included in this category.
(v) Capital-intensive Industries: Industries requiring huge investments are called capital-intensive industries. Iron and steel, cement and aluminium are capital-intensive industries.
(vi) Labour-intensive Industries: Such industries which require huge labour force for running them are called labour-intensive industries. In these industries, labour is more important than capital. Shoe- manufacturing and bidi making, etc. are included in these industries.
                                        Iron and Steel Industry
• The location of steel industry is generally oriented to one or the other raw material sources, mainly iron ore or coal.
• However, recent technological developments in transport as well as processing, the use of scrap as raw material and agglomeration economies make market location, especially coastal, advantageous as well.
• The steel manufacturing centers all the world over, exhibit different sorts of locational orientation, viz,
a) Near coal deposits or iron ore mining areas, especially for inland location;
b) Near the major steel consuming centers; or
c) Sea port locations.
• Distribution
a) TISCO: Jamshedpur (Singhbhum district, Jharkhand),
b) IISCO (Burnpur, Hirapur, Kalti)
c) VISL (Bhadravati): (1923) on Bhadra River in Karnataka, Shimoga district
d) HSL-Bhilai: Largest plant in India established with Soviet assistance in 1959 in Raipur district of M.P.
e) HSL-Rourkela: established in 1965 with German assistance in Sundargarh district of Orissa.
f) HSL-Durgapur: established in 1962 with British assistance in Burdwan district of West- Bengal.
g) BSL-Bokro: established in 1972 with Soviet collaboration in Hazaribag district on the confluence of Bokaro and Damodar rivers.
h) Salem: Tamil Nadu
i) Vishakhpatnam: first integrated plant in the coastal area
Aluminum Industry
• Aluminium Industry in India is one of the leading industries in the Indian economy. The main operations of the India aluminium industry is mining of ores, refining of the ore, casting, alloying, sheet, and rolling into foils. India is the sixth largest producer of bauxite and ninth largest producer of alumina in the world.
• Locational Factors:
a) Aluminium is a raw material oriented industry as it grossly weight loosing.
b) Bauxite is the basic raw material in the aluminium manufacturing process. Bauxite is converted into alumina in alumina refineries.
c) Due to the high quality of bauxite and close proximity between bauxite mines and alumina refineries, the cost of bauxite to Indian producer is one-third of that of global producers.
d) Other raw materials used in the manufacturing process are calcine, petroleum, coke, caustic soda, aluminium fluoride, fuel oil, steam coal and anthracite coal.
e) The reduction of bauxite into alumina requires heavy amount of energy. Therefore, beside nearness to bauxite deposits, cheap availability of power is the major consideration in the location of this industry.
• Major Production Centers
a) Korba – (Bharat Al. Co. Ltd): Bauxite – Amarkantak – Phula- Kapahara region, Electricity- Korba Thermal Power Plant. Transport – Harwa- Nagpur Rail-line.
b) Renukoot (Hindustan All. Co. Ltd): set up in 1988 as one of the biggest unit. Bauxite – Bagni Hills (Bihar) and Amarkanatak Mts. Electricity – Rihand Dam.
c) Belgaum (Indian Al. Co. Ltd.): Bauxite – Chandgad, (Kohlapur Dist). Electricity – Sharavati Hep.
d) Alwaye (Indian Al. Co. Ltd.): both convert alumina into Aluminium metal. Alumina is produced at Muri from bauxite available at Bagru Hills.
e) Mettur (Madras Al. Co. Ltd.) T. N.: Bauxite – Sheravoy Hill. Electricity – Mettur HEP.
f) Ratnagiri (Bharat Al. Co. Ltd.) Maharashtra: Bauxite – Kolaba, Kolhapur, satara of Udaigiri Dhangarvedi region. Koyna HEP provides power.
g) Nalco (National Al. CO Ltd): established in 1981.
Textile Industry
A. Cotton Textile Industry
• Cotton textile industry comprises of three sectors: mill sector, handloom and power-loom. The share of large mill, handloom and power-loom sector in the total production of cotton cloth in 1998-99 was 5.4 per cent, 20.6 per cent and 74 per cent respectively.
• The Cotton and synthetic fiber textile industry has made tremendous progress. Per capita availability of cloth from both the types was 15 meters only in 1960-61. In the year 1995-96, it has risen to 28 meters.
• This has enabled us to export cotton yarn, cotton fabrics and cotton and synthetic garments on a large scale. In 1995-96 we earned 2.6 billion dollars by their exports.
• Distribution: Cotton Textile Industry
a) Cotton textile industry is one of the most widely distributed industries in our country. These mills are located in more than 88 centers in different parts of the country. But majority of cotton textile mills are still located in the cotton growing areas of the Great Plains and peninsular India.
b) Maharashtra is the leading producer of cotton textile in the country. Mumbai is the major centre of textile mills. About a half of the Cotton textile mills are located in Mumbai alone. It is, therefore, rightly called as ‘Cottonpolis’ of India. Sholapur, Kohlapur, Nagpur, Pune, Aurangabad and Jalgaon are other important centers in Maharashtra.
c) Gujarat, which ranks second in the production of cotton textiles, Ahamedabad is the major centre of the state. Surat, Bharauch, Vadodara, Bhavnagar and Rajkot are other centers in the state.
d) Tamil Nadu has emerged as an important producer of cotton textiles in southern states. Coimbatore is an important centre in the state. Tirunelveli, Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem and Thanjavour are other important centers here.
e) In Karnataka, cotton textile industry is concentrated at Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum and Gulberga.
f) Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Varanasi, and Hathras are important centers in Uttar Pradesh.
g) In Madhya Pradesh this industry is concentrated at Indore and Gwalior.
h) Howrah, Serampur and Murshidabad are important Cotton textile centers in West Bengal.
i) Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh are the other states producing cotton textiles.
• Factors for the localization of textile industry: Ahmadabad– Mumbai – Pune region
a) Availability of raw material – A large amount of cotton is grown in this belt.
b) Availability of capital – Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Pure are the places where capital for investment is easily available.
c) Means of transport – This region is well connected with the rest of India by roads and railways. It, therefore, facilities transportation of finished products.
d) Accessibility to the market – Maharashtra and Gujarat has a large market to sell textile products here. Developed means of transportation help in movement of textile products to other market centers as well as to foreign market. Nowadays the market has become a dominant factor in determining the location of cotton textile industry.
e) Nearness to ports – Mumbai port facilitates the import of machinery and good quality of cotton from abroad and export of the finished products.
f) Cheap labour – Cheap and skilled labour is easily available from the surrounding areas.
g) Availability of power – Cheap and sufficient power is easily available here.
B. Silk Textile Industry
• Indian Silk is known for its exquisiteness world over and has a long history of silk exports. The silk was mainly produced by the handloom sector. Only in the late 20th century the modern silk fabric manufacturing techniques developed. Even today the finer or the special textured fabrics are done on the handlooms.
• India holds 2nd position after China in the field of silk production. There are four different types of silk- (1) Mulberry (2) Tasar (3) Eri (4) Muga (golden yellow).
• India is also the 2nd largest producer of tasar after China. India has also a monopoly in Muga, Assam is the only producer.
• The first modern factory was established in 1932 at Howrah. State wise the distribution of silk industry is as follow:-
• Karnataka: 70% of total country’s silk output (only Mulberry).
a) Production area: Banglore, Mysore, Kolar, Mandya, Tumkur, Belgaum and Coorg districts.
b) Mill- Channapatna, Mysore.
• Assam: 2% of total country putput, third largest producer of non-mulberry silk and the only Muga producing region.
a) Production – Goalpara, Kamrup, Nawgaong; Mill – Jagi-Road.
• West Bengal: 13% of the country’s production, mostly mulberry.
a) Production – Malda, Murshidabad, Birbhum, Bankura.
b) Mill- Bishnerpur, Baswa, Raghunathpur, Chak-Islampur
• Jharkhand: 8% of the country’s production, mostly tassar.
a) Production- Palamu, Ranchi, Hazaribagh.
• Bihar – Bhagalpur.
• M.P.: 2.7% of the country, largest tassar producer after Bihar
a) Production – Balaghat, Bastar, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja
• J&K: mostly mulberry producer; “Tabby”- white plain silk of J&K
b) Production – Anantnag, Baramula, Doda, Jammu, Udhampur.
• Orissa: Tasar producer.
• Varanasi & Bombay are the main silk weaving centres.
C. Jute Industry
• Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. The production is concentrated in India and Bangladesh. India with overall of 66% of world’s production tops the production of jute. Bangladesh with 25% lies at second position followed way behind by China with 3%.
• It supports nearly 4 million farm families, besides providing direct employment to about 2.6 lakh industrial workers and livelihood to another 1.4 lakh people in the tertiary and allied activities.
• Locational factors for high concentration of jute mills in Hugli basin are as follows:
a) The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta grows about 90 per cent of India’s jute and provides raw material to jute mills here.
b) Coal is obtained from Raniganj fields which are hardly 200 km away.
c) Cheap water transportation is available. The area is also served by a network of roads and railways.
d) Abundant water is available for processing, washing and dyeing jute.
e) Humid climate is very convenient for spinning and weaving.
f) Kolkata is a big port which helps in the import of machinery and spare parts and in the export of finished jute products.
g) High density of population in West Bengal and in the neighbouring parts of Jharkhand and Bihar provides abundant cheap labour. Some labour comes from Uttar Pradesh also.
h) Big capitalists are living in and around Kolkata which makes easy flow of capital in this industry.
i) Banking and insurance facilities are also available in and around Kolkata.
j) The early arrival of British merchants under the aegis of East India Company in Kolkata helped in setting this industry here. So Kolkata enjoys the advantage of an early start.
                                                Agro Industries
A. Sugar Industry
Sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry of India. If we take Gur, Khandsari and Sugar together, then India becomes the largest producer of sugar product in the world. This industry employs about 2.5 lakh people.
Distribution
Most of the sugar mills are concentrated in six states, namely Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Localization Factors
The following are the factors for the localization of sugar industry –
1) Sugarcane is the main raw material for making sugar. Sugar mills can be set up only in the sugarcane producing areas. Sugarcane gets dry soon after harvesting. It can neither be stored nor kept for long period of time. Sugarcane should be taken immediately to the sugar mills after harvesting.
2) Transportation cost of sugarcane is high. Generally sugarcane is transported through bullock carts which can carry it upto 20-25 kilometers. Recently tractor trolleys and trucks have been used to carry sugarcane to the sugar mills.
3) Beside these factors, capital, market, labour and power also play significant role in localization of this industry.
Reasons for shifting of sugar industry from North India to Peninsular India
Sugarcane industry is gradually shifting from north Indian states to states in Peninsular India. Some of the important reasons:
1) The production of sugarcane per hectare is higher is Peninsular India. In fact, sugarcane crop grows well in the tropical climate of south India.
2) The sucrose content is higher in the tropical variety of sugarcane grown in the south.
3) The crushing season in south India is longer than in north India.
4) In south India most of the mills have modern machinery.
5) Most of the mills in Peninsular India are in cooperative sector, where profit maximization is not the sole objective.
B. Tea Industry
• Nearly 98 per cent of the tea production comes from Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. Some tea is also grown in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura.
• The tea estates are generally set upon cleared hill slopes while in Assam, tea cultivation is done in the lowlands, above the flood level. The production of tea has more than doubled since independence mainly through increase in yield by improved varieties and optimum use of inputs.
• The tea industry provides direct gainful employment to more than one million workers mainly drawn from the backward and socially weaker sections of the society.
• It is also a substantial foreign exchange earner and provides significant contribution to the state and central exchequer.
• Tea plantations in India are mainly located in rural, hill and backward areas of north­eastern and southern states.
C. Coffee Industry
• Coffee was first grown in Bababudan Hills in Karnataka during the 17th century, but on a plantation scale, it was cultivated in Chikmaglur (Karnataka) in 1826. Later, coffee cultivation was extended to Wynad, Shevaroy and the Nilgiris.
• Although India contributes only a small percentage of the world production, Indian coffee has created a niche for itself in the international market. Indian robustas, are highly preferred for their good blending quality. Arabica coffee from India is also well received in the international market.
• Distribution
a) More than half of the country’s coffee production comes from Karnataka, of which 80 per cent comes from Coorg and Chikmagalur. Hasan is the third largest producer in the state.
b) In Kerala, coffee is produced in Wynad (Palghat region), Kozhikode and Cannanore.
c) In Tamil Nadu, coffee comes from the Nilgiris, Annamalai (Coimbatore region) Shevaroy hills (Salem district), Palani hills, Tirunelveli and Madurai.
d) Small quantities come from Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and the north-eastern states.
D. Leather Goods Industry
• Hides and skins are the basic raw materials which come from pelts of cattle and large animals and small ones like goat and sheep. India has a large livestock population.
• West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the largest producers of cattle hides and Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal of the goat skin.
• Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh also produce substantial quality hides. Major footwear production centres in the country include Kanpur, Agra, Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Jaipur.
• Leather is a highly labour-oriented industry in India, and has been identified as one of the major thrust areas for export. It is one of the traditional industries of India spread over organized and unorganized sector.
• The small-scale, cottage and artisan sector account for over 75 per cent of the total leather production. India has traditionally a rich advantage in this industry both in terms of raw material and skilled manpower. People employed in this sector are predominantly from the minorities and disadvantaged sections of the society.
                                        Petrochemical Industry
• Petro-chemicals industry is one of the fastest growing industries of India. This industry has revolutionized the industrial scene by providing the products which are substituting the traditional raw materials like wood, glass and metals.
• India is self sufficient in the production of petrochemicals.
• Petro-chemicals are derived from petroleum or natural gas. We use a variety of products from morning till evening made from petrochemicals such as Toothbrushes, toothpaste, combs, hairpins, soap cases, plastic mugs, electric switches, lipstick, and foam etc.
• Locational Pattern
a) The location pattern of existing as well as those proposed clearly indicates that the refineries seek mostly sea board location to take advantages of the imported crude or the crude produced by the offshore oil field like Mumbai high.
b) Other trend is raw material based like Assam refineries which are based on inland oilfield.
c) Further, more government policy has played an important role in setting up of certain market based refineries like Mathura, Barauni and Panipat.
d) Indian Petro-Chemical Corporation has set up a huge petro-chemical complex near vadodara producing a wide range of products. Gandhar, and Hazira in Gujarat and Nagathone in Maharashtra are other important centers of petro-chemical industry.
                                           Fertilizer Industry
• The fertility of the soil is the most important factor in agriculture. It depends upon phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, and others in proper amounts.
• Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen are the principal elements in fertilizer industry which is an important branch of chemical industry. Animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms also contribute many materials used as fertilizer. The fertilizer manufacture is chiefly dependent on three principal raw materials: phosphate, potash, and nitrogen.
• Nitrogen provides vital foods for plants and sustenance for human life. Ironically, in the form of nitric acid as an ingredient of munitions and explosives, it causes enormous human destruction.
• Localization & Distribution:
a) The localization of fertilizer industry is closely related to petrochemicals. About 70 per cent of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizer use naphtha as the basic raw material. That is why most of the fertilizer plants are located near the oil refineries.
b) However, some fertilizer plants draw their feed stock from steel slug as well as coke and lignite.
c) Phosphatic fertilizer plants are primarily dependent upon mineral ‘phosphate’ which is available in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Some plants are based on imported phosphate mineral.
d) Sulphur is another important mineral used for manufacturing fertilizers. This is available in Tamil Nadu.
e) Gujarat is the largest producer of fertilizers in India and accounts for more than one- fourth of the total production of nitrogenous as well as phosphatic fertilizers of the country. This state has more than 14% of the country’s total installed capacity.
f) Tamil Nadu accounts for about 11 per cent of the country’s installed capacity. At present Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of phosphate fertilizers (about 16%) and the fourth largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers nearly 9% of India.
                                Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industry
• The pharmaceutical industry is one of the oldest in India. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is at the top of the chart amongst India’s science- based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology.
• The drugs and pharmaceutical units are mostly located in Kolkata, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Delhi, Pune, Rishikesh, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Indore and Jaipur.
• The pharma industry of India ranks very high amongst all the third world countries, in terms of technology, quality and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured.
• It ranges from simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made by the Indian pharmaceutical industry.
• The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the most highly organized sectors. This industry plays an important role in promoting and sustaining development in the field of global medicine.
• Due to the presence of low cost manufacturing facilities, educated and skilled manpower and cheap labour force among others, the industry is set to scale new heights in the fields of production, development, manufacturing and research.
                                              Cement Industry
• Locational Factors:
a) Manufacturing of cement requires heavy, low value and weight loosing materials and is primarily a raw material oriented industry.
b) The availability of raw materials, bulk transport facilities at reasonably low cost and market are the three main localization factors, which favour the growth of cement industry in India.
c) Limestone is the main raw material and comprises 60-65 per cent of the total product. On an average 1.5 tonnes of limestone are required to produce one tonne of cement. Hence, the location of a cement plant is based on the limestone deposits.
d) The other raw materials used are sea shells, slag from steel plants and slag from fertilizer plants and these raw materials influence the localization of cement industry in their own way.
e) The transportation cost is also reduced if the manufacturing plant is located near the market. In fact, ready market is the pre-requisite for the proper growth of an industry, producing heavy commodity with low specific cost like cement.
• Distribution of Cement Industry
a) India ranks second in the world next only to China in the production of cement.
b) It is because of constraint of raw material that 86 per cent of the factories and 75 per cent of the production capacity is found in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Bihar.
Industrial corridors in India
The Industrial corridor programme concentrates on infrastructural development of Cities with the objective to expand manufacturing and services base.
The industrial corridors in India are:
a) Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
• The corridor project, being developed in co-operation with the government of Japan
• The DMIC runs across the six states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
b) Amritsar-Kolkata corridor
• AKIC will be developed in a band of 150-200 km on either side of the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC) in a phased manner.
• AKIC will be spread across a belt of at least 5.5 lakh sq km comprising 20 cities in seven states — Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal
• The cities which will covered by the ADKIC Project are Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Ambala, Saharanpur, Delhi, Roorkee, Moradabad,Muzaffarnagar, Bareilly,Aligarh, Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Asansol, Durgapur and Kolkata
c) Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
• The corridor plans to come up along Chennai, Sriperumbudur, Ponnapanthangal, Ranipet, Chittoor, Bangarupalem,Palamaner, Bangarpet, Hoskote and Bangalore.
• It is expected to boost commerce between south India and east Asia by enabling quicker movement of goods from these places to the Chennai and Ennore ports.
• The corridor project, being developed in co-operation with the government of Japan.
d) Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor
• The corridor project, being developed in co-operation with the government of UK.
• The corridor will start from Bengaluru, passing through Tumkur, Chitradurga, Hubli, Dharwad and Belgaum (in Karnataka), Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara, Karad and Pune, and end in Mumbai (in Maharashtra).
e) Visakhapatnam-Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC)
• VCIC’s long coastline and strategically located ports provide it with an opportunity to create multiple international gateways to connect India with the vibrant global production networks of Southeast and East Asia that form the bedrock of global manufacturing.
                                        Major Industrial Regions of India
1. Kolkata – Hooghly Belt
• It is an old and important region of the country stretching along the either side of the river – from Naihati to Budge- Budge along the left Bank and from Tribeni to Nalpur in the right bank.
• Cotton textile, silks, jute engineering chemical and pharmaceuticals, leather and foot-wears industries are located here.
• The region is facilitated with rich hinterland of Ganga, Brahmaputra Plain, and the enough availability of good coal, cheap local labour and the port facility of Kolkata.
• The region is experiencing stagnation and relative decline in industrial growth in recent years.
• The main problems are:
a) High degree of congestion
b) Gradual filling of Kolkata port making the shipping facilities somewhat difficult
c) Bottle-neck in South-East and Eastern rainy-days.
d) Paucity of space
e) Shortage of drinking water and civic amenities
f) Environmental pollution
2. Mumbai-Poona Belt
• It is the most important industrial region of the country. It has a heavy concentration of cotton textile, engineering, oil refiners, fertilizers and chemical industries.
• The belt consists of Mumbai, Kurla, Ghatkopar, Andheri, Jogeshwari, Thane, Bhandrup, Kalyan, Pimpri and Poona.
• Cheap labour, easy availability of hydroelectricity, raw cotton along with the port facilities; act as the main assets of this area.
• The industrial development of this region has almost reached its saturation stage. After partition cotton producing area reduced thus effected the raw material supply and high transport cost of coal and other minerals effected the growth. But now it has developed as an economic hub.
3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Surat Belt
• It is the third largest industrial region comprising within its fold the centers of Kalol, Ahmedabad, Nadiad, and Vadodara, Surat, Nava sari and Ankleshwar.
• Leather goods and a wide variety of engineering units are established here.
• The initial advantage was the availability of raw cotton from the hinterland and the transport network along with the Kandla port.
4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Region
• Cheap and skilled labour, large market were the chief factors, which attracted a number of industries.
• Availability of cheap hydel power helped in various ways. Cotton textile, sugar plants, leather goods, chemicals, Iron and Steel, Hindustan Aeronautics have assisted the development of this area.
5. Chotanagpur Plateau Region
• Locally available coal, iron-ore mica, bauxite copper, limestone, manganese have given rise to heavy industries like iron and steel at Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Kulti, Burnpur, Bokaro along with many associated industries.
• Proximity to Kolkata port, vast network of railways, cheap labour supply from the tribal areas and the development of DVC and numerous thermal power stations helped the area to develop as a major industrial region on the map of India.
• Besides, many more mini industrial regions and industrial districts are fast emerging in different parts of the country in recent times.
6. Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala belt
• It has the advantage of the proximity of the national capital; availability of cheap raw materials; nearness of large market and regular supply of power.
• This region spreads in two separate belts running in north-south direction between Faridabad and Ambala in Haryana and Mathura and Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh.
• The capital city has predominance of engineering, electronic, chemical, glass and consumer industries.
7. Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region:
• This industrial region extends from Vishakhapatnam district in the north-eastern part of Andhra Pradesh to Kurnool and Prakasham districts in the south-east and covers most of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
• The industrial development of this region mainly depends upon Vishakhapatnam and Machili-patnam ports.
• Developed agriculture and rich mineral resources in the hinterlands of these ports provide solid base to the industrial growth in this region. Coal fields of the Godavari basin are the main source of energy.
• The other industries of this region include sugar, textiles, paper, fertilizers, cement, aluminium and light engineering.
• The important industrial centres of this region are Vishakhapatnam, Vijaywada, Vijaynagar, Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Elum and Guntur. Recent discovery of natural gas in Krishna- Godavari basin is likely to provide much needed energy and help in accelerated growth of this industrial region.
8. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region:
• This is comparatively small industrial region and spreads over Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alwaye, Emakulam and Allapuzha districts of south Kerala.
• The region is located far away from the mineral belt of the country as a result of which the industrial scene here is dominated by agricultural products processing and market oriented light industries.
• Plantation agriculture and hydroelectricity provide the industrial base to this region.
• The main industries are textiles, sugar, rubber, match box, glass, chemical fertilizers, food and fish processing, paper, coconut coir products, aluminium and cement.
• Important industrial centres are Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Alluva, Kochi, Alappuzha and Punalur.

Administrative Tribunals


Administrative Tribunals

Administrative Tribunals

In the Indian judicial system, apart from the judicial bodies, such as the Supreme Court and the High Court, there are numerous quasi-judicial bodies who are involved in dispute resolutions.
These quasi-judicial bodies are the Tribunals and Regulators. Tribunals are established as per appropriate statutory provisions and are observed as an alternative medium to the conventional judicial bodies for the redressal of grievances and settling disputes.
A tribunal, in a plain language, is a. body of administrative character that has been powered with judicial powers to adjudicate one question of law or fact that affects rights of citizens. It has judicial or a quasi-judicial function and works in a judicial manner.
Provision for setting up administration tribunals at the union and state levels has been made in part- XIV-A of the constitution by 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. Art. 323-A authorizes Parliament to establish administrative tribunals to resolve disputes and complaints regarding the service commission of persons employed under the union/state governments. The Parliament provides for the jurisdiction, power and authority to such tribunals and prescribes the procedure to be followed by them.
Some of the important tribunals are:
– Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT),
– Industrial Tribunals set up under Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
– Customs, Excise and Gold (Control) Appellate Tribunal
– Armed Forces Tribunal (AFT),
– Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT),
– Railway Rates Tribunals set up under Indian Railways Act, 1890
– Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT).
– Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT), etc-
– Income Tar Appellate Tribunal set up under Income Tax Act, 1961
– Court of Survey set up wider Merchant Shipping Act. 1958
– VAT Tribunal
– Revenue Tribunal
The kind of cases are administered by the tribunals are limited to their explicit domains. For example, the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal can hear only matters related to Income Tax disputes and not matters of Customs or Excise department. Therefore, the area of operation of these tri burials are marked out at the beginning itself by the statute under which its constituted.
Central Administrative Tribunal
Parliament has passed the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985 which authorizes the central government to establish administrative tribunals for central services and on the application of the states even for the state services.
Composition of tribunals: A tribunal shall consist of a chairman and such number of vice-chairman and another member as may be provided for. The President appoints them in case of central tribunals and the Governor in case of the state tribunals.
Each tribunal shall consist of a chairman and such number of Vice Charmin and judicial and administrative members as the appropriate Government may deem fit. The additional benches must consist of one judicial member and one administrative member.
The chairman may transfer the vice-chairman or other member from one Bench to another Bench. Every bench shall include at least one judicial member and one administrative member. The Chairman may constitute a single member bench for certain classes of cases. The chairman if required by the nature of case may require that the matter be heard by a Bench of two members, the benches of the central Tribunal shall ordinarily sit at New Delhi (which shall be known as the principle bench). Allahabad, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay and such other places as the central government may by notification, specify.
Qualification, Term and removal of members: A person shall not appointed as Chairman unless he (a) is or has been a Judge of a High Court or (b) has for two years held the office of Vice Chairman or has for two years held the post of a secretary to the government of India or holding other post carrying the scale of pay of secretary.
No person can be appointed as the Vice-Chairman unless he (a) is or has been a judge of high court (b) has for 2 years held the post of secretary to the Government or holding other post carrying the same scale under the central or state governments; (c) has for 5 years held the post of an additional secretary to the government of India or other post carrying the scales of pay of additional secretary. A person to be appointed as a judicial member must (a) be or have been a judge of the high court, or (b) have been a member of Indian legal service and has held a post in Grade I of the Service for at least 3 years.
A person to be appointed as an administrative member must (a) have held the post of an additional secretary to the Government of India or their equivalent post for at least 2 years or (b) have held the post of a joint Secretary to the government of India or other equivalent post, (c) have adequate administrative experience.
The Chairman, Vice Chairman and other members shall be appointed by the President. The judicial members shall appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of India. The Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other members of the Tribunal for a state shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Governor of the concerned state.
The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other members shall hold office for a term of 5 years or until he attains (a) in the case of the chairman or Vice-Chairman the age of 65 years and (b) in the case of other members the age of 62 years.
The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or member may resign from his post by writing to the President. They shall be removed from their office only by an order made by the President on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an enquiry made by a judge of the Supreme Court. They shall have the right to be informed of the charges against them and shall be given a reasonable opportunity of hearing. The central government may be rules regulate the procedure for the investigation of the charges against them.

One Rank One Pension


One Rank One Pension

One Rank One Pension means payment of uniform pension to military personnel retiring in same rank with same length of service, irrespective of date of retirement. Further any hike in pension rates to be automatically passed on to past pensioners.
The difference in the pension of present and past pensioners in the same rank occurs on account of the number of increments earned by the defence personnel in that rank.
In 1973 the government following the Third Central Pay Commission in an “ex-parte” decision terminated OROP and the issue is still under focus.
Reasons for demand:
a) In the government services the age of retirement is 59-60 years and even after that government officer gets good pension whereas in case of military services the retirement age is generally between 37-39 years and rest of his life the person has to live on pension or end in becoming home guards or small farmers (if have land in village) or landless labours.
b) During service they work with full honour and zeal but after retirement the things vanishes.
c) They leave their families behind and work in dangerous and hostile regions, with no guarantee to life. Work conditions are tough and so is the pressure but in turn they get meager salary and pension.
d) Successive pay commissions have widened gap between veterans who have retired earlier and those who retire later.
Proposed benefits:
a) It will help in boosting the confidence and morale of serving Army persons.
b) Ex-servicemen drawing pensions will benefit from the OROP scheme, especially those who retired before 2006.
c) The scheme will benefit all three services — air force, navy and army.

Inner line Permit


Inner line Permit

Inner Line Permit (ILP) is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period. It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside certain states, to obtain such a permit.
At present, the ILP is in force in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland. In Manipur, large scale protests have called for its implementation for years.
Under the ILP system, a certificate can be issued to outsiders only for travel in the areas covered by ILP. A non-resident also cannot buy property in these areas. Long term residence however, is allowed under certain kinds of ILP. Such provisions though are not valid for Central government employees and security personnel.
The other concept is Protected Areas Permit.
Under the Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order, 1958, all areas falling between the ‘Inner line’, as defined in the said order, and the International Border of the State have been declared as a Protected Area. Currently, Protected Areas are located in the following States: –
(i) Whole of Arunachal Pradesh
(ii) Parts of Himachal Pradesh
(iii) Parts of Jammu & Kashmir
(iv) Whole of Manipur
(v) Whole of Mizoram
(vi) Whole of Nagaland
(vii) Parts of Rajasthan
(viii) Whole of Sikkim (partly in Protected Area and partly in Restricted Area)
(ix) Parts of Uttarakhand
A foreign national is not normally allowed to visit a Protected / Restricted Area unless it is established to the satisfaction of the Government that there are extra-ordinary reasons to justify such a visit. Every foreigner, except a citizen of Bhutan, who desires to enter and stay in a Protected or Restricted Area, is required to obtain a special permit from a competent authority delegated with powers to issue such a special permit to a foreigner, on application.
Recently, Jammu and Kashmir government has relaxed the Protected Area Permit (PAP) regime to enable foreigners to visit restricted areas in Leh district of Ladakh, a decision which is expected to increase the footfall of tourists and give considerable boost to the local economy. It will create a positive impact on the life and livelihood of the people residing in these remote areas.

SECC 2011


SECC 2011

SECC-2011 is the study of socio economic status of rural and urban households.
The Ministry of Rural Development Government of India, commenced the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011, in June 2011 through a comprehensive door to door enumeration across the country.
SECC 2011 has three census components which were conducted by three separate authorities but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development in the Government of India. Census in Rural Area has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development (DoRD). Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). Caste Census is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General of India (RGI) and Census Commissioner of India.
The SECC, 2011 has the following three objective:
a) To enable households to be ranked based on their socioeconomic status. State Governments can then prepare a list of families living below the poverty line.
b) To make available authentic information that will enable caste-wise population enumeration of the country.
c) To make available authentic information regarding the socioeconomic condition, and education status of various castes and sections of the population.
The highlights of the Census are:
a) In 75 per cent of 17.9 crore households in rural India, the monthly income of the highest-earning member is less than Rs.5,000
b) Nearly 40 per cent are landless and work as manual casual labourers
c) 25 per cent of the rural households still do not own a phone
d) 25 per cent rural households have no access to irrigation
e) Only 8.29 per cent of rural households have a member earning over Rs.10,000 per month
f) 10.69 crore rural families, or 60 per cent, qualify for “deprivation”
g) Of these over 100 million deprived households, 21.5 per cent belong to scheduled castes or tribes.
h) This census takes caste into account for the first time in any such exercise since 1931.

Sai Praveen

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