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Insolation and Heat Budget Temperature
• The only source of energy for the earth’s atmosphere comes from the sun which has a surface temperature of more than 10,800 degree F. This energy travels through space for a distance of 93 million miles and reaches us as solar energy or radiant energy in the process called Insolation.
• Only that part of the sun’s radiation which reaches the earth is called Insolation. It is the amount of solar energy reaching the earth’s surface per unit time per sq. cm.
• Insolation is measured with the help of Pyranometer.
Variability in Insolation
• The amount of Insolation received on any date at a place on earth is influenced by the following factors:
– the rotation of earth on its axis
– the angle of inclination of the sun’s rays
– the length of the day
– the transparency of the atmosphere
– The configuration of land in terms of its aspect.
• The Earth’s axis makes an angle of 66 with the plane of its orbit round the sun, has a greater influence on the amount of Insolation received at different latitudes.
• The second factor that determines the amount of Insolation received is the angle of inclination of the rays. This depends on the latitude of a place.

• The higher the latitude the less is the angle they make with the surface of the earth resulting in slant sun rays. The area covered by vertical rays is always less than the slant rays. If more area is covered, the energy gets distributed and the net energy received per unit area decreases.
• Moreover, the slant rays are required to pass through greater depth of the atmosphere resulting in more absorption, scattering and diffusion.
• For the year as a whole Insolation is greatest at the equator and decreases towards the poles
• Insolation shows the least variation throughout the year at the equator.
• The diurnal range of temperature is the highest in the hot deserts. (Due to clear skies and high radiation).
• The Summer Solstice and the Winter Solstice fall on 21st June and 23rd December, respectively.
• The Autumn Equinox and the Spring Equinox fall on 23rd September and 21st March, respectively.

Passage of Solar Radiation through the Atmosphere

• The radiation from the sun is made up of three parts, the visible ‘white’ light that we see when the sun shines and the less visible ultra-violet and infra-red rays. The visible ‘white’ light is the most intense and has the greatest influence on our climate. The ultra -violet rays affect our skin and cause sun-burn when our bare body is exposed to them for too long a period. The infra-red rays can penetrate even dust and fog and are widely used in photography.
• The atmosphere is largely transparent to short wave solar radiation. The incoming solar radiation passes through the atmosphere before striking the earth’s surface.
• The earth’s surface receives most of its energy in short wavelengths.
• Within the troposphere water vapor, ozone and other gases absorb much of the near infrared radiation.
• Very small-suspended particles in the troposphere scatter visible spectrum both to the space and towards the earth surface. This process adds color to the sky. The red color of the rising and the setting sun and the blue color of the sky are the result of scattering of light within the atmosphere.
Spatial Distribution of Insolation at the Earth’s Surface 
• The Insolation received at the surface varies from about 320 Watt/m2 in the tropics to about 70 Watt/m2 in the poles.
• Maximum insolation is received over the subtropical deserts, where the cloudiness is the least.
• Generally, at the same latitude the insolation is more over the continent than over the oceans.
• Equator receives comparatively less insolation than the tropics.
• In winter, the middle and higher latitudes receive less radiation than in summer.
Heating and Cooling Of Atmosphere
• There are different ways of heating and cooling of the atmosphere. The earth after being heated by Insolation transmits the heat to the atmospheric layers near to the earth in long wave form.
• Conduction: The air in contact with the land gets heated slowly and the upper layers in contact with the lower layers also get heated. This process is called conduction. Conduction is important in heating the lower layers of the atmosphere
• Convection: The air in contact with the earth rises vertically on heating in the form of currents and further transmits the heat of the atmosphere. This process of vertical heating of the atmosphere is known as convection. The convective transfer of energy is confined only to the troposphere
• Advection: The transfer of heat through horizontal movement of air is called advection. Horizontal movement of the air is relatively more important than the vertical movement. In middle latitudes, most of diurnal (day and night) variation in daily weather is caused by advection alone. In tropical regions particularly in northern India during summer season local winds called ‘loo’ is the outcome of advection process
• Terrestrial Radiation – The Insolation received by the earth is in short waves forms and heats up its surface. The earth after being heated itself becomes a radiating body and it radiates energy to the atmosphere in long wave form. This energy heats up the atmosphere from below. This process is known as terrestrial radiation.
• Green House Gases – The long wave radiation is absorbed by the atmospheric gases particularly by carbon dioxide and the other green house gases. Thus, the atmosphere is indirectly heated by the earth’s radiation. The atmosphere in turn radiates and transmits heat to the space. Finally the amount of heat received from the sun is returned to space, thereby maintaining constant temperature at the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.
Heat budget of the Earth
• The earth as a whole does not accumulate or loose heat. It maintains its temperature.
• This can happen only if the amount of heat received in the form of Insolation equals the amount lost by the earth through terrestrial radiation.
• Our earth is heated by the process of radiation. Radiation is the means by which solar radiation reaches the earth and the earth loses energy to outer space. T
• The global radiation has three major components:
a) Incoming short wave solar radiation.
b) The planetary Albedo.
c) Outgoing long wave radiation from the earth’s surface to the space.

Incoming shortwave solar radiation: equals to 100 units
a)      Amount lost to space through scattering and reflection equals to 35% comprises of
·         Clouds = 27%
·         Reflected by ground = 2%
·         Scattered by dust particles = 6%
b)      Heat received by earth equals to 51% comprises of
·         Through direct radiation = 34%
·         Received as diffuse day light = 17%
c)       Absorption by the atmospheric gases and water vapour equals to 14%
Outgoing long-wave terrestrial radiation
 a)      Reflected by earth which was equal to 51 per cent as shown above
·         23% from radiation
·         9% through convection
·         19% through evaporation
b)      48% absorbed in atmosphere moved through radiation back into space.
• Albedo is the reflective quality of a surface with respect to solar radiation.
• Smooth surface increase albedo, whereas rough surface reduce it.
• The albedo of the earth is approximately 0.4 i.e. about 40 % of solar radiation is reflected back into space.
• Albedo is higher for a snow covered surface, and low for dark soil.
• Tropics (23 ½°N and 23 ½°S)- Albedo is between 19 to 38 per cent
• Polar Regions – Albedo as high as 80%.

Variation in the Net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface

• There are variations in the amount of radiation received at the earth’s surface. Some part of the earth has surplus radiation balance while the other part has deficit.
• Figure depicts the latitudinal variation in the net radiation balance of the earth – the atmosphere system.

• There is a surplus of net radiation balance between 40 degrees north and south and the regions near the poles have a deficit.
• The surplus heat energy from the tropics is redistributed pole wards and as a result the tropics do not get progressively heated up due to the accumulation of excess heat or the high latitudes get permanently frozen due to excess deficit.
Latitudinal Variations
• Although the earth and its atmosphere as a whole have a radiation balance, there are latitudinal variations. The heat/energy is transferred from the lower latitudes to the higher latitudes through winds and ocean currents.
• In the low latitudes (between 40 N and 40 S) heat gained by short wave radiation is far more than the heat loss by long waves through the earth’s radiation. In contrast in the higher latitudes more heat is lost by outgoing long wave than it is received in short waves.
• In view of the imbalances at high and low latitudes, there is large-scale transfer of heat from tropics to high latitudes by atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

Rights Related to Women, Children, Old Age

Rights and Safeguards Provided to Women, Children and Old Age
• Article 15(1) – The state shall not discriminate against any citizen of India on the ground of sex.
• Article 15(3) – The state is empowered to make any special provision for women. In other words, this provision enables the state to make affirmative discrimination in favor of women.
• Article 16(2) – No citizen shall be discriminated against or be ineligible for any employment or office under the state on the ground of sex.
• Article 23(1) – Traffic in human beings and forced labor are prohibited.
• Article 39(a) – The state to secure for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood.
• Article 39(d) – The state to secure equal pay for equal work for both Indian men and women.
• Article 39(e) – The state is required to ensure that the health and strength of women workers are not abused and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their strength.
• Article 42 – The state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
• Article 51-A(e) – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
• Article 243-D(3) – One-third of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat shall be reserved for women.
• Article 243-D(4) – One-third of the total number of offices of chairpersons in the Panchayat at each level shall be reserved for women.
• Article 243-T(3) – One-third of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Municipality shall be reserved for women.
• Article 243-T(4) – The offices of chairpersons in the Municipalities shall be reserved for women in such manner as the State Legislature may provide.
• Article 14 – The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of laws with in the territory of India.
• Article 15 – The State shall not discriminate against any citizen. Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any special provisions for women and children.
• Article 21 – No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
• Article 21 A – The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of 6-14 years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
• Article 23 – Traffic in human beings and beggary and other forms of forced labor are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with the law.
• Article 24 No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.
• Constitution (86th Amendment) Act was notified on 13th December 2002, making free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for all children in the age group of 6-14 years.
• Article 39(e) and (f) provides that the State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing to “ensure that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused” and “that the citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength” and that “the children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity” and that the childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
• Article 45: The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.
• Article 47: The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties.
• Article 243G read with Schedule 11: provide for institutionalization of child care by seeking to entrust programmes of Women and Child Development to Panchayat (Item 25 of Schedule 11), apart from education (item 17), family welfare (item 25), health and sanitation (item 23) and other items with a bearing on the welfare of children.
The population of the elderly persons has been increasing over the years. As per the UNESCO estimates, the number of the aged (60+) is likely to be 590 million in 2005. The figure will double by 2025. By 2025, the world will have more elderly than young people and cross two billion mark by 2050. In India also, the population of elder persons has increased form nearly 2 crores in 1951 to 7.2 crores in 2001. In other words about 8% of the total population is above 60 years. The figure will cross 18 % marks by 2025.
• Directive Principle of State Policy, Article 41 states that “the state shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of underserved want.”
• Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of SCs, STs and other weaker sections: The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
• Apart from these the other legal laws like Section 125 (1) (2) of CrPC, Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 (Section 20), Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 and 18 Principles passed and adopted by UN General Assembly.

UNESCO Creative Cities Network

The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) was created in 2004 to promote cooperation with and among cities that have identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development.
By joining the Network, cities commit to sharing their best practices and developing partnerships involving the public and private sectors as well as civil society in order to:
• Strengthen the creation, production, distribution and dissemination of cultural activities, goods and services;
• Develop hubs of creativity and innovation and broaden opportunities for creators and professionals in the cultural sector;
• Improve access to and participation in cultural life, in particular for marginalized or vulnerable groups and individuals;
• Fully integrate culture and creativity into sustainable development plans.
The Network covers seven creative fields: Crafts and Folk Arts, Media Arts, Film, Design, Gastronomy, Literature and Music.
The Creative Cities Network is a privileged partner of UNESCO, not only as a platform for reflection on the role of creativity as a lever for sustainable development but also as a breeding ground of action and innovation, notably for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Two Indian cities for first time have been designated as members of UNESCO’s Creative Cities Network (UCCN).
1. Varanasi City (Uttar Pradesh): It has been added in the City of Music category of network and
2. Jaipur City (Rajasthan): It has been added in the City of Crafts and Folk Art category of network.

What is defamation?

• The term “defamation” is an all-encompassing term that covers any statement that hurts someone’s reputation.
• In India, defamation can both be a civil wrong or a criminal offence.
• The difference between the two lies in the objects they seek to achieve. While a civil wrong tends to provide for a redressal of wrongs by awarding compensation, a criminal law seeks to punish a wrongdoer and send a message to others not to commit such acts.
• In Indian laws, criminal defamation has been specifically defined as an offence under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) whereas the civil defamation is based on tort law – an area of law which does not rely on statutes to define wrongs but takes from ever-increasing body of case laws to define what would constitute a wrong.
• Moreover, in a criminal case, defamation has to be established beyond reasonable doubt but in a civil defamation suit, damages can be awarded based on probabilities.
• Section 499 of the IPC defines what amounts to criminal defamation and few subsequent provisions specify what the punishment for having committed defamation would be.
• Section 499 states defamation could be through words – spoken or intended to be read, through signs, and also through visible representations. These can either be published or spoken about a person with the intention of damaging reputation of that person, or with the knowledge or reason to believe that the imputation will harm his reputation.
• Section 500 stipulates an imprisonment of up to two years, with or without fine, for someone held guilty of criminal defamation. However, criminal defamation is a compoundable offence and parties can seek a closure of the case by reaching a compromise.
Views of the Supreme Court
• The Supreme Court said that the right to free speech cannot be used to undermine an individual’s right to dignity and reputation cannot be sullied solely because another individual can have his freedom. Protection of reputation is a fundamental right. It is also a human right. Cumulatively, it serves the social interest…it is not a restriction that has an inevitable consequence which impairs circulation of thought and ideas.
• The reputation of a person – a basic element under Article 21 – could not be allowed to be crucified at the altar of the other’s right of free speech. Right to freedom of speech and expression is not absolute. It is subject to imposition of reasonable restrictions.
• Reasonable restriction “means that the limitation imposed on a person in enjoyment of the right should not be arbitrary or of an excessive nature beyond what is required in the interests of the public.” In other words, the restriction must be narrow and restrict only what is necessary and should not be arbitrary or excessive. If the restriction is too broad, it will have a “chilling effect on speech” which will make it unconstitutional.
• The Supreme Court has maintained the constitutional validity of Sections 499 and 500 of the Indian Penal Code, reading the right to reputation as a part of the right to life assured to citizens under Article 21 of the Constitution.

The Rights of Transgender Persons Bill

• The definition of transgender includes: one who is partly female or male; or a combination of female and male; or neither female nor male. In addition, the person’s gender must not match the gender assigned at birth, and includes trans-men, trans-women, persons with intersex variations and gender-queers
• According to the 2011 Census, India has 6 lakh people belonging to the transgender community.
• The main problems that are being faced by the transgender community are of discrimination, unemployment, lack of educational facilities, homelessness, lack of medical facilities like HIV care and hygiene, depression, hormone pill abuse, tobacco and alcohol abuse, penectomy and problems related to marriage and adoption.
• Thus the government of India has launched Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014.
• The Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014 calls for equal rights and reservation to transgenders and envisages creation of a national commission and state level commissions for transgender communities.
Key features of the Bill 

a) Seeks to provide framework for the formulation and implementation of a comprehensive national policy for ensuring overall development of the transgender persons and their welfare.
b) Two percent reservation in primary, secondary and higher education and in government jobs.
c) Establishment of Employment Exchange, National and State Commissions for Trasngender Persons and Special Transgender Rights Courts.
d) No child who is transgender will be separated from his or her parents on the grounds of being a transgender except on an order of competent court.
e) Penalty for hate speech against transgender persons includes imprisonment extending upto one year and with fine.
f) This bill will help government take necessary steps in order to ensure that transgender persons enjoy the right to life with dignity and to personal liberty guaranteed by the Constitution.
After the passage of the Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014 in the Rajya Sabha, the government pushed for a heavily diluted legislation called as Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 which is still pending with the Lok Sabha.


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