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Atmospheric Circulation/Wind

Atmospheric Circulation - Pressure Belts Winds
• The movement of air in the atmosphere due to the uneven distribution of temperature over the surface of the earth is known as Atmospheric Circulation.
• Air expands when heated and gets compressed when cooled. This results in variations in the atmospheric pressure. The result is that it causes the movement of air from high pressure to low pressure, setting the air in motion.
• Atmospheric pressure also determines when the air will rise or sink.
• Air in horizontal motion is wind.
• The wind redistributes the heat and moisture across the planet, thereby, maintaining a constant temperature for the planet as a whole.
• The vertical rising of moist air cools it down to form the clouds and bring precipitation.
Atmospheric Pressure
• The weight of a column of air contained in a unit area from the mean sea level to the top of the atmosphere is called the atmospheric pressure.
• The atmospheric pressure is expressed in units of millibars.
• At sea level the average atmospheric pressure is 1,013.2 millibars.
• Due to gravity the air at the surface is denser and hence has higher pressure.
• Pressure is measured with the help of a mercury barometer or the aneroid barometer.
• The pressure decreases with height. At any elevation it varies from place to place and its variation is the primary cause of air motion, i.e. wind which moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas
Vertical Variation of Pressure
• In the lower atmosphere the pressure decreases rapidly with height. The decrease amounts to about 1 mb for each 10 m increase in elevation.
• It does not always decrease at the same rate the vertical pressure gradient force is much larger than that of the horizontal pressure gradient.
• But, it is generally balanced by a nearly equal but opposite gravitational force. Hence, we do not experience strong upward winds.
Horizontal Distribution of Pressure
• Small differences in pressure are highly significant in terms of the wind direction and velocity. Horizontal distribution of pressure is studied by drawing isobars at constant levels. Isobars are lines connecting places having equal pressure. In order to eliminate the effect of altitude on pressure, it is measured at any station after being reduced to sea level for purposes of comparison.

• Low pressure system is enclosed by one or more isobars with the lowest pressure in the centre. High-pressure system is also enclosed by one or more isobars with the highest pressure in the centre.
Forces Affecting the Velocity and Direction of Wind
The wind blows from high pressure to low pressure. The wind at the surface experiences friction. In addition, rotation of the earth also affects the wind movement. The force exerted by the rotation of the earth is known as the Coriolis force. Thus, the horizontal winds near the earth surface respond to the combined effect of three forces – the pressure gradient force, the frictional force and the Coriolis force. In addition, the gravitational force acts downward.
Convergence and Divergence of winds
Pressure Gradient Force
The differences in atmospheric pressure produce a force. The rate of change of pressure with respect to distance is the pressure gradient. The pressure gradient is strong where the isobars are close to each other and is weak where the isobars are apart.
Frictional Force
It affects the speed of the wind. It is greatest at the surface and its influence generally extends up to an elevation of 1 – 3 km. Over the sea surface the friction is minimal.
Coriolis Force

• The rotation of the earth about its axis affects the direction of the wind.
• This force is called the Coriolis force after the French physicist who described it in 1844. It deflects the wind to the right direction in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
• The deflection is more when the wind velocity is high.
• The Coriolis force is directly proportional to the angle of latitude.
• It is maximum at the poles and is absent at the equator.
• The Coriolis force acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient force. The pressure gradient force is perpendicular to an isobar.
• The higher the pressure gradient force, the more is the velocity of the wind and the larger is the deflection in the direction of wind.
• As a result of these two forces operating perpendicular to each other, in the low-pressure areas the wind blows around it.
• At the equator, the Coriolis force is zero and the wind blows perpendicular to the isobars. The low pressure gets filled instead of getting intensified. That is the reason why tropical cyclones are not formed near the equator.
• The winds in the upper atmosphere, 2 – 3 km above the surface, are free from frictional effect of the surface and are controlled mainly by the pressure gradient and the Coriolis force.
Geotropic Wind
• When isobars are straight and when there is no friction, the pressure gradient force is balanced by the Coriolis force and the resultant wind blows parallel to the isobar. This wind is known as the Geotropic wind
Cyclonic Circulation
• The wind circulation around a low is called cyclonic circulation. Around a high it is called anti cyclonic circulation. The direction of winds around such systems changes according to their location in different hemispheres

Other important patterns of atmospheric circulation over the globe are
• The wind is strong where the isobars are crowed and weak where they are wide apart. The normal sea level pressure is expressed as 1013.2 millibars or 29.92 inches.
• The relation between isobar spacing and wind speed is rather firm in high and mid-latitudes but weakens as we approach the equator. Between 10°N and 10°S, it is difficult to relate the winds to pressure distribution.
• In the large wind systems, the air is slow starter, but when it has worked up some speed, it will carry on for a longer time.
• Along and near the earth’s surface, wind does not move freely in a horizontal plain. The irregularities of the earth surface (e.g. mountains, hills etc,) influence the direction of winds
• Other factors being equal, the difference in wind speed and direction between the surface and upper levels is greatest over rough land surface. Over water the surface wind nearly equals the gradient wind.
• The maximum speed of wind usually occurs in the early afternoon and the minimum in the early morning hours just before the sunrise.
• Winds are named for the direction from which they come. A wind blowing from north to south is a north wind, a wind blowing from west to east is a west wind and a wind blowing from east to west is an east wind.
• The pattern of the movement of the planetary winds is called the general circulation of the atmosphere.
• The general circulation of the atmosphere also sets in motion the ocean water circulation which influences the earth’s climate. The air at the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rises because of convection caused by high Insolation and a low pressure is created. The winds from the tropics converge at this low pressure zone.
The pattern of planetary winds largely depends on:
(i) Latitudinal variation of atmospheric heating;
(ii) Emergence of pressure belts
(iii) The migration of belts following apparent path of the sun
(iv) The distribution of continents and oceans
(v) The rotation of earth

• The converged air rises along with the convective cell. It reaches the top of the troposphere up to an altitude of 14 km. and moves towards the poles. This causes accumulation of air at about 30o N and S.
• Part of the accumulated air sinks to the ground and forms a subtropical high. Another reason for sinking is the cooling of air when itreaches 30 N and S latitudes.
• Down below near the land surface the air flows towards the equator as the easterlies. The easterlies from either side of the equator converge in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Such circulations from the surface upwards and vice-versa are called cells. Such a cell in the tropics is called Hadley Cell.
• In the middle latitudes the circulation is that of sinking cold air that comes from the poles and the rising warm air that blows from the subtropical high. At the surface these winds are called westerlies and the cell is known as the Ferrel cell.
• At polar latitudes the cold dense air subsides near the poles and blows towards middle latitudes as the polar easterlies. This cell is called the polar cell. These three cells set the pattern for the general circulation of the atmosphere. The transfer of heat energy from lower latitudes to higher latitudes maintains the general circulation.
The Tricellular Circulation
The Tricellular Circulation is the atmospheric circulation in the upper atmosphere.
Mechanism of Circulation:
The heat in the atmosphere is transferred:
1. Horizontally – The horizontal distribution of heat is mainly because of the unequal heating at different latitudes, while the vertical circulation is because of the ascent and descent of heated and cold air, respectively.
2. Vertically – The meridional circulation of heat transfer and vertical circulation of atmosphere result into the formation of certain cells which are as under:
• Tropical Cell (Hadley Cell)
• Polar Front Cell (Ferrell Cell)
• Polar or Sub-Polar Cell
a) Tropical-Cell (Hadley Cell): The Idea of tropical cell was given by Hadley in 1735. In his opinion there is a vertical cell in each hemisphere.
• In the equatorial zone, the Sun’s rays fall vertical. Consequently, the air becomes light resulting into the formation of a low pressure area along the equator, known as Doldrums.
• The warm ascending air current releases latent heat. This process results into the formation of cumulous clouds. The formation of cumulous clouds provides the required energy to drive the tropical cell. The cumulous clouds give torrential rains in the equatorial regions.
• The rising air from thermally driven tropical cell moves pole-ward in the upper troposphere. The air of the Hadley Cell descends at 30° North and 30° South. The Hadley Cells are more pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere than that of the Northern Hemisphere. It is mainly because of the less proportion of land in the Southern Hemisphere.
b) The Polar Front Cells (Ferrell Cell):
• The polar front cell, also known as Ferrell Cell develops between the 30° and 60° in both the Hemispheres. In these latitudes the wind blows from southwest to northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from northwest to southeast in the Southern Hemisphere and because of the Coriolis force the winds blow almost from west to east.
• In the upper part of the atmosphere in these latitudes (30°C and 60° N and S) the movement of winds is parallel to the trade winds in both the Hemisphere.
• The prevailing westerly in this zone is frequently influenced by the migratory temperate cyclones. The direction of winds in the temperate cyclones is variable, coming from different directions and thus helps in the mixing of temperature.
• The middle latitude circulation cell plays a very vital role in maintaining the terrestrial heat balance. There is plenty of rainfall in these latitudes from the temperate cyclones throughout the year.
c) Polar or Sub-Polar Cells:
• This cell is located between 60° to 90° in both the hemispheres. These are the areas of high pressures or anticyclones. In these latitudes, the air descends downward from the upper atmosphere.
• From these high pressures the air moves towards the sub-polar low pressure. Though the direction of winds is from northeast to southwest in the Northern hemisphere and from southeast to northwest in the Southern Hemisphere, but under the impact of coriolis force the direction of winds is generally from east to west.
• The cold polar easterlies in their equator ward movement clash with the warmer westerlies (anti-trades) of the temperate regions. The zone of convergence of these two airflows of contrasting nature is known’s “Polar Front”. In this cell the mixing of heat transfer is accomplished by waves in the westerlies.
• In the upper atmosphere of this cell the wind blows from the 60° towards the poles.
• In brief, in the tropical cell (Hadley Cell), the exchange of heat and movement of air are accomplished by direct circulation, while in the Ferrell Cells and Polar Cells have a tendency to move north and southward with the shifts in pressure belts and change in seasons. In these areas the transfer or energy is influenced by the temperate cyclones.
Climatic Significance of Tricellular Circulation
Climatic Significance of Meridional Circulation
Some of the significant climatic influences are as under:
• The Tricellular circulation is very significant in the transfer of heat from the lower to the upper atmosphere.
• The convergence of trade winds in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and in the Subtropical High Pressure (Divergent) Zone makes a substantial contribution in the transfer of energy.
• The Tricellular Cells help in the development of the temperate and tropical cyclones.
• The mechanism of origin of Indian Monsoon is closely influenced by these cells.
• The Origin of tornados and vertical disturbances are the results or heat transfer in the Hadley Cells.
• The formation of hot deserts, horse latitudes, roaring forties are because of the meridional circulation of the atmosphere.
• In brief, the seasons, climates, climatic belts, vegetation belts, and the life style of people in the different regions of the world are directly or indirectly influenced by the Tricellular atmospheric circulation.

Rights and Safeguards Provided to the Minorities

Rights and Safeguards Provided to the Minorities Rights and Safeguards Provided to SCs, STs
• The Constitution of India does not define the word ‘Minority’ and only refers to ‘Minorities’ which are ‘based on religion or language’
• The Constitution spells out the rights of the minorities in detail.
‘Common Domain’ and ‘Separate Domain’ of rights of minorities provided in the Constitution
 ‘Common domain’ rights are those which are applicable to all the citizens of our country.
• ‘Separate domain’ rights are those which are applicable to the minorities only and these are reserved to protect their identity.
• (Bullet)The Preamble to the Constitution declares the State to be ‘Secular’ and this is a special relevance for the Religious Minorities.
• Equally relevant for them, especially, is the declaration of the Constitution in its Preamble that all citizens of India are to be secured ‘liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship and ‘equality of status and of opportunity’.
‘Common Domain’ of Minority Rights
1. The Directive Principles of State Policy – Part IV of the Constitution:
• Obligation of the State ‘to endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities’ amongst individuals and groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations. Article 38 (2).
• Obligation of State ‘to promote with special care’ the educational and economic interests of ‘the weaker sections of the people’ (besides Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes). Article 46.
2. Fundamental Duties – Part IVA of the Constitution:
• Citizens’ duty to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; and
• Citizens’ duty to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
3. Fundamental Rights – Part III of the Constitution
• Both the rights common domain and separate domain are being provided to minorities under Fundamental Rights.
In the ‘common domain’, the following fundamental rights and freedoms are covered:
• Article 14 – People’s right to ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’
• Article 15 (1) & (2) – Prohibition of discrimination against citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
• Article 15 (4) – Authority of State to make ‘any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens’ (besides the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes).
 Article 16(1)&(2) – Citizens’ right to ‘equality of opportunity’ in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State – and prohibition in this regard of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
• Article 16(4) – Authority of State to make ‘any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State
 Article 25(1) – People’s freedom of conscience and right to freely profess, practice and propagate religion – subject to public order, morality and other Fundamental Rights.
 Article 26 – Right of ‘every religious denomination or any section thereof – subject to public order, morality and health – to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes, ‘manage its own affairs in matters of religion’, and own and acquire movable immovable property and administer it ‘in accordance with law’.
 Article 27 – Prohibition against compelling any person to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion’.
• Article 28 – People’s ‘freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in educational institutions’ wholly maintained, recognized, or aided by the State.
‘Separate Domain’ of Minority Rights:
 Article 25 – Sikh community’s right of ‘wearing and carrying of Kirpans.
 Article 29(1) – Right of ‘any section of the citizens’ to ‘conserve’ its ‘distinct language, script or culture’.
 Article 29(2) – Restriction on denial of admission to any citizen, to any educational institution maintained or aided by the State, ‘on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them’.
• Article 30(1) – Right of all Religious and Linguistic Minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
• Article 30(2) – Freedom of Minority-managed educational institutions from discrimination in the matter of receiving aid from the State.
• Article 347 – Special provision relating to the language spoken by a section of the population of any State.
• Article 350 A – Provision for facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
• Article 350 B – Provision for a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities and his duties

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016

The definition of disability as provided by the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) states that “Persons with Disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.”
Salient features of the Bill
• Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.
• The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21. It includes Speech and Language Disability, Specific Learning Disability, Acid Attack Victims, Dwarfism, muscular dystrophy. It also included three blood disorders: Thalassemia, Hemophilia and Sickle Cell disease have been added for the first time.
• It seeks reservation in vacancies in government establishments has been increased from 3% to 4% for certain persons or class of persons with benchmark disability. In addition benefits such as reservation in higher education, government jobs, reservation in allocation of land, poverty alleviation schemes etc. have been provided for disabilities.
• The bill claimed that every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education. The government will fund educational institutions as well as the government recognized institutions to provide inclusive education to the children with reasonable accommodation to disables.
• Special Courts will be designated in each district to handle cases concerning violation of rights of PwDs.
• The Bill provides for penalties for offences(imprisonment of 6 months to 2 years along with fine of 10000 to 5 lakh) committed against persons with disabilities and also violation of the provisions of the new law.
• The bill provides power to government to notify additional disabilities, a clear recognition of the need to factor in conditions that may arise as a result of an ageing population, an inevitable part of the demographic transition.
• The new law will not only enhance the Rights and Entitlements of Divyang-Jan but also provide effective mechanism for ensuring their empowerment and true inclusion into the Society in a satisfactory manner.

Aadhar and Its Benefits

• It is a 12 digit individual identification number issued by UIDAI (Unique identification authority of India) on behalf of Government of India
• It will serve as identity and address proof anywhere in India.
• It is available in 2 forms, physical and electronic form i.e. (e-Aadhaar).
• Any resident (a person who has resided in India for 182 days, in the one year preceding the date of application for enrollment for Aadhaar) of India irrespective of age, sex, class can avail it.
• The UID authority will authenticate the Aadhaar number of an individual, if an entity makes such a request.  A requesting entity (an agency or person that wants to authenticate information of a person) has to obtain the consent of an individual before collecting his information.
Benefits of Aadhar
A. Individual:
• Easy hassle free access to services (banking, LPG, phone number, etc).
• Migrants: Provides identification to large number of migrant labors to avail services.
• Financial inclusion: The identification enables easy opening of bank account leading to financial inclusion of rural folks and ease of operations for banks through Banking Correspondent.
B. Administrative:
• Online cost effective verification of beneficiaries leads to Good Governance (minimum government maximum Governance).
• Unique and robust platform to check duplication and ghost cards.
• Subsidy costs can be hugely reduced by cutting down intermediaries and eliminating ghost cards.
C. Reduction in fake identity: 
• As only one identity card is provided to a person (linked to individual biometrics), there is incentive to be genuine.

National Student Startup Policy, 2016 (NSSP)

• The policy aims to create 100,000 technology based student start-ups and a million employment opportunities within the next 10 years (2025).
• The policy plans on achieving this by developing an ideal entrepreneurial ecosystem and promoting strong inter-institutional partnerships among technical institutions.
• The policy highlights the areas and domains to be used, as necessary, for re-orientation in academic curriculum as well as pedagogy to fulfil the needs of start-ups.
• It emphasizes the much-desired need for an appropriate startup policy to propel the youth of India through and beyond the 21st century.
Aims and Objectives
• It will prepare students to gain benefits from GoI’s ‘Start-up India’ programme.
• Guiding and grooming students to take up entrepreneurial careers and successfully launch their start-ups.
• Motivate students to convert their Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) and projects into viable B-plans.
• To create a common virtual platform and ask institutions to submit students’ projects on this platform to make the project nationwide.
• To inculcate social responsive behaviours among students aspiring to launch start-ups.
• To offer students, from rural regions of India, training in business opportunity identification in their local areas.
• To orient students as to how they can conceptualize social business start-ups that will address social issues.
• The mentoring and handholding processes of student start-ups are also covered in the policy. A Startup Implementation Committee is already constituted by the Council under the Chairmanship of Shri.Sanjay Inamdar.
• To equip students with the necessary skills for managing their business enterprise.
Salient features of the policy
• The formulated policy has outlined the role of the AICTE, TBI and academic institutions in creating student entrepreneurs all along implementing the government’s initiative the “Start-up India”.
• According to the policy, the curriculum pattern followed by these institutions would include 40 per cent skills based courses, 30 per cent knowledge related courses and 30 per cent attitude related courses
a) Courses on Basic Business Management will orient students with the fundamentals of business and other related areas.
• The new policy has made a provision to set up a fund to support start-up events and fest that would be organized at national and international levels. An amount of Rs. 10,000 crore will be invested through the venture funds registered with SEBI and interested to support student startups.
a) Seed Fund for Student Start-up: Private, institute specific funds shall be encouraged to set up operations in the academic institutions and for funding start-ups.
b) Student Start-up Infrastructure Fund (SSIF): A ‘Student Start-up Infrastructure Fund’ with an initial annual outflow of INR 20 crores shall be set up to support start-ups in academic institutions
• This policy will also support Technology Business Incubators (TBI) in creating new number of student startups and entrepreneurs pan India.
• A national level acceleration programme could be designed to benefit students of AICTE approved/ affiliated Institutions. Through this programme, 50 selected start-ups may get Angel Funds of up-to 25 Lakhs annually. Private investors may also be used.
• The policy shall be governed by the ‘National Resource Institution’ selected by AICTE, MHRD, New Delhi and will be implemented by the Regional Hubs among the AICTE Approved Institutions. 10.5.1 There will be 4 Regional Hubs to monitor the activities across the country.
• To develop hard and soft infrastructure like testing labs, IT labs, tools room, design studios, data set, laboratories, video-conferencing facilities and research and analysis labs in the academic institutes, an initial annual outflow of Rs. 20 crore will be provided to help student start-ups in institute
 Idea Lab to Nation’s Idea Lab: A Business Idea Lab should be set up at every campus to pool the business ideas of students, test their feasibility and compile and file the IPR.


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