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Europe


Europe

Europe

Europe is the sixth largest continent in size and the third largest in population. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south, Asia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the West. Europe is a wealthy continent and is the center of the West and Western Democracy.
BASIC DATA
Population: 738,199,000 (Source: 2010 United Nations)
Area: 3,930,000 square miles
Bordering Bodies of Water: Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Biscay, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea.
Highest Point: 1. El’brus in Russia, (5 642 m/18 510 ft); 2. Mont Blanc, France-Italy: 4 807m (15 771 ft).
Largest Lake: Lake Balaton Hungary, largest lake of Central Europe, 592 km2.
Longest Rivers: 1. Volga (3,690 km (2,293 miles), 2. Danube 2850 km (1770 miles).
Languages of Europe: English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Nordic Languages, East European languages.
REGIONS
• Scandinavia (Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark);
• The British Isles (the United Kingdom and Ireland);
• Western Europe (France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Monaco);
• Southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Italy, Malta, San Marino, and Vatican City);
• Central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary);
• South-Eastern Europe (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, and the European part of Turkey);
• Eastern Europe (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, the European portion of Russia, and by convention the Transcaucasian countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan).
European Physiography
• Alps: Located in south-central Europe, they extend for almost 700 miles from the coastline of southern France (near Monaco) into Switzerland, northern Italy and Austria, then southeast through Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina as the (Dinaric Alps). Ending in Albania on the rugged coastline of the Adriatic Sea.
The highest point is Mont Blanc at 15,771 ft. (4,807 m)
• Apennines: The source of almost all rivers in Italy including the Arno, Tiber, and Volturno, the Apennines Mountains (Ital. Appennino) 830 miles (1,350 km) in length, form the backbone of the country, and run the entire length of the Italian Peninsula, ending on the island of Sicily.
The highest point is Mt. Corno at 9,560 ft. (2,914 m).
• Atlantic Highlands: Formed million of years ago during the Caledonian mountain-building periods as western lands were (forced) or pushed against the Scandinavian Shield. Significant mountain ranges here include the Kjolen in Norway and Sweden, and the Pennines that stretch through the central United Kingdom.
• Balkan Mountains: These mountain extend from Yugoslavia across Bulgaria. Additional ranges run through Albania, Greece and Macedonia. Its most famous mountain is Mt. Olympus, the highest and most awe-inspiring peak in all of Greece. In ancient times it was the mythical home of Zeus, and was declared the first national park in Greece in 1939. It stands at 9,568 ft. (2,918 m).
• Carpathian Mountains: This mountain system located in eastern Europe is the source of the Dniester, Tisza and Vistula Rivers. They form the natural border between Slovakia and southern Poland, and then extend southward through Ukraine and into Romania. There are major subdivisions, and the highest point is Mt. Gerlachovkain in northern Slovakia, standing at 8,711 ft. (2,655 m).
• Caucasus Mountains: Stretching from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea, these volcanic mountains have many peaks above 15,000 ft. (4,572 m). The highest point (and the highest point in Europe) is located here; Mt. Elbrus at 18,506 ft. (5,642 m).
• Great Hungarian Plain: Located in southeastern Europe, and surrounded by mountains, the land features several small forests and large patches of grassland. It averages only 100 meters above sea level and often suffers from dry conditions, thus relying on winter snow run-off from the Alps and Carpathian Mountains.
• Kjolen Mountains: This jagged mountain system runs along the border of eastern Norway and western Sweden. The highest point is Mt. Kebnekaise, standing at 6,965 ft. (2,123 m).
• Massif Central: This mountainous plateau of southeastern France is the source of the Allier, Creuse and Loire. It’s about 32,189 sq. miles (85, 001 sq. km) in size, and the highest point is Puy de Sancy at 6,186 ft. (1,885 m).
• Mesata: The central plateau, or Mesata, covers nearly half of the entire country of Spain. This high plateau averages about 2,300 ft. (700 m) in the north, and 2,000 ft. (600 m) in the south. It’s surrounded by a series of mountain ranges including the Cantabrian, Sierra De Gata and Sierra Guadarrama in the north and central, and the Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada in the south. These mountains separate the Meseta from the Costa Verde, the Ebro valley, the Mediterranean and the valleys of Andalucia.
• North European Plain: The fertile North European Plain slopes to the north-northeast from the Alps, extending to the Baltic Sea, and on into Denmark and southern Finland, Norway and Sweden. It continues east for almost 2,500 miles (4000 km), on into the Russian Federation. The land is largely flat with smaller areas of hills, including the Central Russian Uplands. Farming is prevalent and agricultural communities dot the landscape.
• Pyrenees: These mountains form the natural border between France and Spain and extend for about 270 miles from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. The highest point is Pico de Aneto at 11,168 ft. (3,404 m)
• Scandinavian Shield: An ancient area of rocky earth peppered with granite rock that was literally ground down by receding glacial ice sheets. It’s a rolling area of land covered with thousands of lakes (mostly small), linked by rivers.
• Ural Mountains: The Urals are 1,640 miles (2,640 km) in length and extend from the northern-edge of the Russian Federation down through Kazakhstan. They form a natural border between Asia and Europe. The highest point is Mt. Narodnaya at 6,214 ft. (1,894 m).
IMPORTANT STRAITS
• The English Channel (between England and France) is 34km wide and the world’s busiest international seaway.
• The North Channel between Scotland and Northern Ireland is 36km wide.
• The Strait of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean (between Spain and Morocco) is 14.3km wide and 300-900m deep.
• The Bosporus (Istanbul, between Asia and Europe) is 704m wide at its narrowest point.
• The Dardanelles in northwestern Turkey are 61km long but 1.2 to 6km wide and 55-82m deep.
• The Strait of Messina is 3.1km wide between mainland Italy and the island of Sicily.
• The Strait of Bonifacio between the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) is 11km wide.
• The Euripus Strait between mainland Greece and the island of Euboea (150km in length) is only 38 metres wide at its narrowest point!
CLIMATE
The climate of Europe varies from subtropical to polar. The Mediterranean climate of the south is dry and warm. The western and northwestern parts have a mild, generally humid climate, influenced by the North Atlantic Drift. In central and eastern Europe the climate is of the humid continental-type with cool summers. In the northeast subarctic and tundra climates are found. All of Europe is subject to the moderating influence of prevailing westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean and, consequently, its climates are found at higher latitudes than similar climates on other continents.
Of all of Europe’s advantages, none stand out as much as Europe’s mild and temperate climate. At first glance it would appear to be a harsh and cold climate, due to its northerly position on the globe. The reasons for Europe’s mild climate are due to two factors:
1. Prevailing westerly winds and
2. The North Atlantic Drift ocean current.
Europe’s northerly location places it in the prevailing westerly wind belt. This brings mild maritime air from the Atlantic modifying the winters and summers (Africa’s dry land mass lies just across the Mediterranean). These prevailing winds also prevent bitterly cold arctic air from penetrating into the continent instead they sweep into Russia, which does experience bitterly cold winters. Only occasionally, due to changes in jet stream currents, does arctic air penetrate all the way to the Mediterranean. Instead of continental polar air masses, Europe is dominated by cool maritime air from the Atlantic.
Adding to the moderate climate, ocean temperatures are warmer than what would be expected at this location. This is due to the North Atlantic Drift. This is a warm water ocean current, an extension of the Gulf Stream, that originates in the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. As the current moves past Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, it moves northeastward towards the British Isles, Scandinavia, and even into the Arctic Ocean where the port of Murmansk (This Russia port remains open in the winter, albeit with ice breaker help, despite being located above the Arctic Circle.).

Constitutional Bodies


Constitutional Bodies

Constitutional Bodies

1. Union Public Service Commission (Article 315 to 323)
• The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is an independent recruiting agency of Union and performs other functions as provided by the constitution.
• Chairman and other members of UPSC shall be appointed by President of India. The Constitution has not specified the strength of members of UPSC and left it on discretion of President. Generally, UPSC consist of 9 to 11 members.
• In Article 316, it is mentioned that at least one half of the members of UPSC shall be the persons who have held office for at least 10 yrs either under Government of India or Government of a State. But not specified any qualifications for other half members of UPSC.
• A member of UPSC shall hold office for a term of 6yrs from date on which he enters into the office or until he attains age of 65 yrs whichever is earlier. Provided that a member can resign any time to President and can be removed from his office.
• The President can appoint one of members of UPSC as acting chairman if office of chairman becomes vacant or if chairman of UPSC is by reasons of absence or for any other unable to perform his duties.
• The Chairman of UPSC is not eligible for further employment either under Govt of India or a State. The other members of UPSC are only eligible for office of Chairman of UPSC or Chairman of a State PSC but not for any other employment.
• The Chairman or any member of UPSC can be removed by President in following circumstances:-
If he adjudged an insolvent (i.e. bankrupt); If he holds any office of profit or engages in any paid employment during term of office and outside the duties of his office; If in opinion of President, he is unfit to continue in office by infirmity of mind or body.
Instead of above reasons, President can remove a member of UPSC from office on grounds of misbehaviour, but after found guilty in an inquiry made by Supreme Court. During the course of inquiry, the President can suspend the member and decision of SC after inquiry shall be binding on the President. ‘Misbehaviour’ – if he a) is or becomes in any way concerned or interested in any contract or agreement made by Govt of India or state, or b) participates in any way in the profit or in any benefit arising out from that contract.
• The functions are described as follows:
a) To conduct examinations for appointments to services of the Union such as All India and Central Services. The Talent hunting (recruitment) is the most important function of the UPSC.
b) To assist states if requested by two or more states, the UPSC assist them in framing and operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services for which candidates possessing special qualifications are required.
c) The UPSC shall be consulted –
• On all matters relating to methods of recruitment of civil services and civil posts;
• On the principles to be followed in making appointments to above posts and in promotions & transfers from one service to another and on suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions and transfers.
• On all disciplinary matters affecting a person serving under the Government of India or the Government of a State in a civil capacity, including memorials or petitions in such matters;
• On any claim for the award of a pension in respect of injuries sustained by a person while serving under the Government of India or the Government of a State.
• On any claim for reimbursement of legal expenses incurred by a civil servant in defending legal proceedings against him in respects of act done in execution of his duties should be paid out of Consolidating Fund of India;
In all above maters under article 320, it is mandatory to consult UPSC but advice is not binding on govt. So the function of UPSC is to advice and not to decide.
d) The Parliament may by legislation provide for the exercise of additional functions in respect to services of Union and personnel system of local authority or any other body corporate under jurisdiction of UPSC.
2. State Public Service Commission
• A State Public Service Commission consists of a chairman and other members appointed by the governor of the state.
• The Constitution does not specify the strength of the Commission but has left the matter to the discretion of the Governor. Further, no qualifications are prescribed for the commission’s membership except that one-half of the members of the commission should be such persons who have held office for at least ten years either under the government of India or under the Government of a state.
• The Constitution also authorises the governor to determine the conditions of service of the chairman and members of the Commission.
• The chairman and members of the Commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier (in the case of UPSC, the age limit is 65 years). However, they can relinquish their offices at any time by addressing their resignation to the governor. The governor can appoint one of the members of the SPSC as an acting chairman in the following two circumstances:
(a) When the office of the chairman falls vacant; or
(b) When the chairman is unable to perform his functions due to absence or some other reason.
The acting chairman functions till the person appointed as chairman enters on the duties of the office or till the chairman is able to resume his duties.
• The chairman and members of a SPSC are appointed by the governor, they can be removed only by the president (and not by the governor). The president can remove them on the same grounds and in the same manner as he can remove a chairman or a member of the UPSC.
• In addition to these, the president can also remove the chairman or any other member of SPSC for misbehaviour. However, in this case, the president has to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for an enquiry. If the Supreme Court, after the enquiry, upholds the cause of removal and advises so, the president can remove the chairman or a member. Under the provisions of the Constitution, the advise tendered by the Supreme Court in this regard is binding on the president.
3. Joint State Public Service Commission
• The Constitution makes a provision for the establishment of a Joint State Public Service Commission (JSPSC) for two or more states. While the UPSC and the SPSC are created directly by the Constitution, a JSPSC can be created by an act of Parliament on the request of the state legislatures concerned. Thus, a JSPSC is a statutory and not a constitutional body. The two states of Punjab and Haryana had a JSPSC for a short period, after the creation of Haryana out of Punjab in 1966.
• The chairman and members of a JSPSC are appointed by the president. They hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier. They can be suspended or removed by the president. They can also resign from their offices at any time by submitting their resignation letters to the president.
• The number of members of a JSPSC and their conditions of service are determined by the president. A JSPSC presents its annual performance report to each of the concerned state governors. Each governor places the report before the state legislature.
• The UPSC can also serve the needs of a state on the request of the state governor and with the approval of the president.
4. Election Commission
• The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence, direction and control of the entire process for conduct of elections to Parliament and Legislature of every State and to the offices of President and Vice-President of India.
• Election Commission of India is a permanent Constitutional Body. The Election Commission was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950.
• Appointment: Art 324 provides for a Chief Election Commissioner to be appointed by the President. He can also appoint any number of Election Commissioners. Originally the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner. It currently consists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
• For the first time two additional Commissioners were appointed on 16th October 1989 but they had a very short tenure till 1st January 1990. Later, on 1st October 1993 two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. The concept of multi-member Commission has been in operation since then, with decision making power by majority vote.
• The decisions are arrived at by either consensus or majority in a multi-member Election Commission. There is a provision to appoint Regional Commissioners before each general election to Lok Sabha and State Assembly and before the general election and thereafter before each biennial election to the Legislative Council. The President appoints them in consultation with the Election Commission.
• Removal: The CEC can be removed only on the same grounds and in the same manner as a judge of the Supreme Court. An Election Commissioner or a Regional Commissioner can be removed by the President only on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner.
• Functions: The Election Commission superintends, directs and controls the elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and Union Territories, Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections. In this regard, it performs the following functions:
(a) Preparation of electoral rolls.
(b) Conduct of elections.
(c) Counting of votes and declaration of results.
(d) To advise the President in regard to the question whether a Member of Parliament (Art. 103) or a State Legislature has become subject to any disqualification (Art. 192).
(e) To advice the President in the appointment of Regional Commissioner.
(f) Advisory Jurisdiction & Quasi-Judicial Functions: Under the Constitution, the Commission also has advisory jurisdiction in the matter of post election disqualification of sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures. Further, the cases of persons found guilty of corrupt practices at elections which come before the Supreme Court and High Courts are also referred to the Commission for its opinion on the question as to whether such person shall be disqualified and, if so, for what period. The opinion of the Commission in all such matters is binding on the President or, as the case may be, the Governor to whom such opinion is tendered.
(g) The Commission has the power to disqualify a candidate who has failed to lodge an account of his election expenses within the time and in the manner prescribed by law. The Commission has also the power for removing or reducing the period of such disqualification as also other disqualification under the law.
• Independence of the Election Commission: The role of the Election Commission is pivotal. Impartiality of elections is vitally linked to the independence of the Commission. Other provisions dealing with CEC and Election Commissioners are dealt with in the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (conditions of service), Act. In the performance of its functions, Election Commission is insulated from executive interference. It is the Commission which decides the election schedules for the conduct of elections, whether general elections or bye-elections. Again, it is the Commission which decides on the location polling stations, assignment of voters to the polling stations, location of counting centres, arrangements to be made in and around polling stations and counting centres and all allied matters.
5. Finance Commission
• For the purpose of allocation of certain sources of revenue, between the Union and the State Governments, the Constitution provides for the establishment of a Finance Commission under Article 280.
• According to the Constitution, the President of India is authorized to set up a Finance Commission every five years to make recommendation regarding distribution of financial resources between the Union and the States.
• Finance Commission is to be constituted by the President every 5 years.
The Chairman must be a person having ‘experience in public affairs’. Other four members must be appointed from amongst the following:-
a) A High Court Judge or one qualified to be appointed as High Court Judge;
b) A person having knowledge of the finances and accounts of the Government;
c) A person having work experience in financial matters and administration;
d) A person having special knowledge of economics.
• Functions: The Finance Commission recommends to the President as to:-
a) the distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes to be divided between them and the allocation between the States of respective shares of such proceeds;
b) the principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenue of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
c) the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the Panchayats and Municipalities in the State;
d) Any other matter referred to the Commission by the President in the interest of sound finance.
(Note: CAG, Attorney General for India, Advocate General of India has been already covered under Other Executives Section of Day 13).
National Commission for SCs, STs and Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities will be covered under Bodies related to Social Welfare on Day 29).

Inter-State River Water Dispute


Inter-State River Water Dispute

The Inter-State River Water Disputes are governed by the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956. As per the current provisions of the 1956 Act, a tribunal can be formed after a state government approaches Union Government with such request and the Centre is convinced of the need to form the tribunal.
This act was further amended in 2002 to include the major recommendations of ‘The Sarkaria Commission’. The amendments mandated a one year time frame to setup the water disputes tribunal and also a 3 year time frame to give a decision.
Procedure for Adjudication of Disputes
When a Tribunal has been constituted under section 4, the Central Government shall, subject to the prohibition contained in section 8, refer the water dispute and any matter appearing to be connected with, or relevant to, the water dispute to the Tribunal for adjudication.
The Tribunal shall investigate the matters referred to it and forward to the Central Government a report setting out the facts as found by it and giving its decision on the matters referred to it within a period of three years.
Provided that if the decision cannot be given for unavoidable reason, within a period of three years, the Central Government may extend the period for a further period not exceeding two years.
If, upon consideration of the decision of the Tribunal, the Central Government or any State Government is of opinion that anything therein contained requires explanation or that guidance is needed upon any point not originally referred to the Tribunal, the Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, within three months from the date of the decision, again refer the matter to the Tribunal for further consideration, and on such reference, the Tribunal may forward to the Central Government a further report within one year from the date of such reference giving such explanation or guidance as it deems fit and in such a case, the decision of the Tribunal shall be deemed to be modified accordingly:
Provided that the period of one year within which the Tribunal may forward its report to the Central Government may be extended by the Central Government, for such further period as it considers necessary”.
If the members of the Tribunal differ in opinion on any point, the point shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority.

Special Category Status


Special Category Status

The concept of a special category state was first introduced in 1969 when the 5th Finance Commission sought to provide certain disadvantaged states with preferential treatment in the form of central assistance and tax breaks. Initially three states Assam, Nagaland and Jammu & Kashmir were granted special status but since then eight more have been included (Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttarakhand). The rationale for special status is that certain states, because of inherent features, have a low resource base and cannot mobilize resources for development.
The criteria for granting special status are as follows:
Some of the features required for special status are: (i) hilly and difficult terrain; (ii) low population density or sizeable share of tribal population; (iii) strategic location along borders with neighbouring countries; (iv) economic and infrastructural backwardness; and (v) non-viable nature of state finances. The decision to grant special category status lies with the National Development Council, composed of the Prime Minster, Union Ministers, Chief Ministers and members of the Planning Commission, who guide and review the work of the Planning Commission.
The special category states have some distinct characteristics. They have international boundaries, hilly terrains and have distinctly different socio-economic developmental parameters. These states have also geographical disadvantages in their effort for infrastructural development. Public expenditure plays a significant role in the Gross State Domestic Product of the states. The states in the North-East are also late starters in development. In view of the above problems, central government sanctions 90 percent in the form of grants in plan assistance to the states in special category. The most important prescription for special category states is interest free loan with rationalization of public expenditure based on growth enhancing sectoral allocation of resources.
Advantages of getting special category status
• Preferential treatment in federal assistance and tax break
• Significant excise duty concessions. Thus, these states attract large number of industrial units to establish manufacturing facilities within their territory leading to their economy flourishing
• The special category states do not have a hard budget constraint as the central transfer is high
• These states avail themselves of the benefit of debt swapping and debt relief schemes (through the enactment of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act) which facilitate reduction of average annual rate of interest.
• Significant 30% of the Centre’s gross budget goes to the Special category state
• In centrally sponsored schemes and external aid special category states get it in the ratio of 90% grants and 10% loans. For the rest of the states as per the recommendations of the 12th Finance Commission, in case of centrally sponsored schemes only 70% central funding is there in the form of grant. The rest of the states receive external aid in the exact ratio (of grants and loans) in which it is received by the Center.
Raghuram Committee recommendations
Raghuram Committee proposed changes in providing special status. The proposed methodology allocates funds across states based on need thus underdevelopment index has been constructed.
The underdevelopment index the Committee proposes includes the following ten sub-components: (i) monthly per capita consumption expenditure, (ii) education, (iii) health, (iv) household amenities, (v) poverty rate, (vi) female literacy, (vii) percent of SC-ST population, (viii) urbanization rate, (viii) financial inclusion, and (x) connectivity. The Committee recommends that “least developed” states, as identified by the index, be eligible for other forms of central support that the Central Government may deem necessary to enhance the process of development.
Following the constitution of the NITI Aayog (after the dissolution of the Planning Commission) and the recommendations of the Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC), Central plan assistance to SCS States has been subsumed in an increased devolution of the divisible pool to all States (from 32% in the 13th FC recommendations to 42%) and do not any longer appear in plan expenditure.

Indus Water Treaty


Indus Water Treaty

The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing arrangement signed by then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then President of Pakistan Ayub Khan on September 19, 1960, in Karachi. It covers the water distribution and sharing rights of six rivers — Beas, Ravi, Sutlej, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum. The agreement was brokered by the World Bank.
Under the Treaty, all the waters of the Eastern Rivers – Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi – were allocated to India for unrestricted use, except during the transition period of 1 April 1960 to 31 March 1970, during which water had to be supplied to Pakistan so that Pakistan might construct replacement works (two storage dams, eight inter-river link canals and six barrages) for water that was being received earlier from the Eastern Rivers. India agreed to make a fixed contribution of 62 million towards the cost of the replacement works. Pakistan received unrestricted use of the Western Rivers – Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab – which India is “under obligation to let flow” and “shall not permit any interference with these waters,” except for irrigating existing areas and to develop a further 701,000 acres of irrigation from these rivers subject to certain specific conditions. Specific provisions were made for regular exchange of river and canal data between the two countries
The treaty also provides for the partitioning of the rivers by drawing a virtual line on the map of India to split the Indus Basin into upper and lower parts, limiting India’s full sovereignty rights to the lower section (the eastern flowing rivers) and reserving for Pakistan the upper rivers of J & K the so called western flowing rivers.
A Permanent Indus Commission was established to implement the Treaty. Each country has an Indus Commissioner, and they meet regularly – every six months these days – to exchange information and data, and to settle minor disputes. Meetings of the Indus Commissioners have never been suspended – more than 110 rounds of meetings, held alternately in India and Pakistan, have taken place so far.

Sai Praveen

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