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South America


South America

South America

South America, the fourth-largest continent, extends from the Gulf of Darién in the northwest to the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego in the south.
Salient facts
• It is also known as ‘Continent of Birds’.
• South America is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Caribbean Sea in the north-
• The Andes Mountains, which lies parallel to the western side of the continent, forms the largest mountain chain in the world.
• The Amazon River occupies a large depression in the Earth’s Crust, formed by the uplift of the Andes.
• The Amazon Basin in the largest area of the tropical evergreen forests in the world. These tropical evergreen forests are known as ‘Selvas’.
• Amazon and its tributaries, Parana, Orinoco and Sao Francisco, are the main rivers of South America.
• The immense Brazilian Shield underlies more than one-third of South America. It is pitted with numerous volcanic intrusions and a large basaltic plateau exists between the Parana River and the Atlantic Ocean.
• It includes the Easter Islands, the Falkland Islands, the Galapagos Islands and the Tierra del Fuego.
• Tropical conditions are found across over half of South America, when both rainfall and temperatures are high, hot humid rainforest prevail.
Physiographic division
South America can be divided into three physical regions: mountains and highlands, river basins, and coastal plains.
Mountains & Highlands
South America’s primary mountain system, the Andes, is also the world’s longest. The range covers about 8,850 kilometers (5,500 miles). Situated on the far western edge of the continent, the Andes stretch from the southern tip to the northernmost coast of South America. There are hundreds of peaks more than 4,500 meters (15,000 feet) tall, many of which are volcanic.
The highest peak in the Andes, Aconcagua, stands at 6,962 meters (22,841 feet) and straddles the Argentina-Chile border. Aconcagua is the tallest mountain outside Asia.
High plateaus are also a feature of the Andes. The altiplano of Peru and Bolivia, for example, has an elevation of about 3,700 meters (12,300 feet). The Patagonia region of Argentina and Chile consists of lower-elevation plateaus and rugged glaciers.
Outside the Andes, South America has two principal highland areas: the Brazilian Highlands and the Guiana Highlands. Located south of the Amazon River in Brazil, the Brazilian Highlands are made up of low mountains and plateaus that rise to an average elevation of 1,006 meters (3,300 feet). The Guiana Highlands are located between the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers. The heavily forested plateau of the Guiana Highlands covers southern Venezuela, French Guiana, Guyana, northern Brazil, and a portion of southeastern Colombia.
River Basins
South America has three important river basins: the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraguay/Paraná.
The Amazon River basin has an area of almost 7 million square kilometers (2.7 million square miles), making it the largest watershed in the world. The basin, which covers most of northern South America, is fed by tributaries from the glaciers of the Andes. Every second, the Amazon River empties 209,000 cubic meters (7,381,000 cubic feet) of freshwater into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Amazon River is the life force of the equally vast Amazon rain forest, which makes up about half of the rain forest of the entire planet. This tropical biome has as many as 100 different tree species on a single acre, including the rubber tree, silk cotton tree, and Brazil nut tree. Other important plant species include palms, ferns, and ropelike vines known as lianas that network throughout the rain forest’s dense canopy.
The Orinoco River flows north of the Amazon. The Orinoco flows in a giant arc for more than 2,736 kilometers (1,700miles), originating in the Guiana Highlands of northern Brazil and discharging in the Atlantic Ocean in Venezuela. The Orinoco River basin covers an area of about 948,000 square kilometers (366,000 square miles) and encompasses approximately 80 percent of Venezuela and 25 percent of Colombia.
A vast savanna or grassland region, known as the Llanos, is the primary biome of the Orinoco River basin. The Llanos is primarily made up of grasses. Swamp grasses, sedges, and bunchgrass are found in wet, low-lying areas. Carpet grass is found in the higher and drier elevations.
Like most grassland biomes, the Llanos is the perfect habitat for many bird species, including the scarlet ibis, bellbird, and umbrellabird. Important river species include the piranha, electric eel, and the Orinoco crocodile, which can reach a length of more than 6 meters (20 feet).
The Paraguay/Paraná River basin covers almost 2.8 million square kilometers (1,081,000 square miles), which is much of southeastern Brazil and Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The Paraná River includes Iguazu Falls, a massive series of waterfalls that extend for 2.7 kilometers (1.7 miles).
Along with the Uruguay River, the Paraná River empties into the Rio de la Plata estuary between Argentina and Uruguay. The Rio de la Plata is the most populated region of both countries. The capital cities of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay, practically face each other across the estuary.
The Paraguay/Paraná River basin supplies water to the plains biome, or Pampas, of South America. The Pampas have rich, fertile soil and predictable rainfall patterns. They are the most important grazing and cropland areas on the continent.
Coastal Plains
A coastal plain is an area of low, flat land next to a seacoast. South American coastal plains are found on the northeastern coast of Brazil, on the Atlantic Ocean, and the western, Pacific coast of Peru and Chile. The coastal plains of northeastern Brazil are extremely dry. The Brazilian Highlands act as a wedge that pushes moist sea winds away from the coastal plains.
The western coastal plains are also extremely dry. They are trapped between the cold Peru Current to the west and the Andes Mountains to the east. The Peru Current brings cold water to the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile. This cold surface water results in thermal inversion: cold air at sea level and stable, warmer air higher up. Thermal inversion produces a thick layer of clouds at low altitudes. These low-lying clouds blanket much of the Pacific coast of South America. They do not allow precipitation to form.
The Atacama Desert is part of the western coastal plain. The Atacama is considered the driest region in the world. The average rainfall is about 1 millimeter (0.04 inches) a year, and some parts of the Atacama have never had rain in recorded history.
Climate of South America
The Climate of South America influenced by the geographical location. Away from the equator to the north and south, there is a greater contrast in temperature between summer and winter in the tropical region. Winters are cooler and summers are less hot.
The Equatorial region: The Highlands of Brazil and Guiana receives moderate annual rainfall and summer is the rainy season. The Equatorial region receives high rainfall throughout the year. There is no dry season in the Equatorial region.
Pampas: In the Pampas lowlands of South America winters are cooler and summers are less hot. Rainfall is moderate and is maximum in summer. The rain-shadow region of the Andes ranges is the Plateau of Patagonia. It is a temperate desert and gets a low rainfall.
Chile: The southernmost region of Chile has marine or oceanic type of climate. This region receives high rainfall throughout the year. Central Chile region has warm summers and mild winters with rainfall in winter only.
Atacama desert: The Atacama desert  has the hot desert type of climate, which  is found in the Northern Chile and Southern Peru. The Andes mountains region climate changes according to height above the sealevel. The lower slopes have tropical climate, the middle slopes have temperate conditions and above 6000 metres permanent cover of snow.
Important Rivers
Deserts of South America
• La Guajira Desert – a desert in northern Colombia,
• Patagonian Desert – the largest desert by area in the Americas, located in Argentina and Chile,
 Atacama – a desert in Chile and Peru, the driest place on Earth,
• Sechura Desert – a desert located along a portion of the northwestern coast in Peru, South America,
• Monte Desert – in Argentina, a smaller desert above the Patagonian
• Peruvian Desert- in Peru and Chile
Pampas
The Pampas of South America are a grassland biome. They are flat, fertile plains that covers an area of 300,000 sq. miles or 777,000 square kilometers, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Andes Mountains. It is found primarily in Argentina and extends into Uruguay.
The word Pampas comes from the Guarani Indian word for level plain. The Argentinean Pampas are the home of the ‘Gaucho’, the original South American cowboy. The pampas is located just below Buenos Aires, between 34° and 30° south latitude, and 57° and 63° west latitude.
The average temperature in the Pampas is 18° C. The pampas has a ‘high sun’ or dry season in the summer, which in the Southern Hemisphere is in December. The wind blows most of the time. The climate in the pampas is humid and warm.
There are many kinds of animal and plant life in the Pampas. Native plants and animals on the Pampas have made adaptations to living in a windy grassland. There are not very many trees because fires frequently occur in the pampas. The fires do not kill the grasses, which regenerate from their root crowns, but destroy the trees, which have shallow root systems. The exception is the Ombu, which has made adaptations to protect itself from fires.
The humid Pampas ecosystem is one of the richest grazing areas in the world. Because of its temperate climate and rich, deep soil, most of the Pampas has been cultivated and turned into croplands.

Institutions Related to Health


Institutions Related to Health National Institutions Related to Education

Institutions Related to Health

A. Medical Council of India
• The Medical Council of India was set up in 1934 under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933. This Act was repealed and a new Act, The Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, was enacted. This latter Act was further amended in 1964, 1993 and in 2001. The objectives of the Indian Medical Council, as per the Act, are as follows:
a) Maintenance of uniform standards of medical education, both undergraduate and postgraduate.
b) Recommendation for recognition/de-recognition of medical qualifications of medical institutions of India or foreign countries.
c) Permanent registration/provisional registration of doctors with recognised medical qualifications.
d) Reciprocity with foreign countries in the matter of mutual recognition of medical qualifications.
• The promotion of medical ethics; ensuring ethical medical practice and punishing wrong-doers; providing guidance to medical professionals on good medical practice, and advice on novel forms of treatment bristling with ethical implications (the use of embryos in medical research and the use of stem cells in clinical practice being just two recent examples) do not feature in the stated objectives.
B.  Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
• The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments.
• FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
• FSSAI has been mandated by the FSS Act, 2006 for performing the following functions:
a) Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards thus notified.
b) Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses.
c) Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories.
d) To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition .
e) Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system.
f) Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern.
g) Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses.
h) Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
i) Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.
C. Codex India
• The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) was created in 1961/62 by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
• The main purpose of this Programme is to protect the health of consumers, ensure fair practices in the food trade, and promote coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.
• “Codex India” the National Codex Contact Point (NCCP) for India, is located at the Directorate General Of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOH&FW), Government of India. It coordinates and promotes Codex activities in India in association with the National Codex Committee and facilitates India’s input to the work of Codex through an established consultation process.
D. Indian Council of Medical Research
• The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world.
• The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
• The Council’s research priorities coincide with the National health priorities such as control and management of communicable diseases, fertility control, maternal and child health, control of nutritional disorders, developing alternative strategies for health care delivery, containment within safety limits of environmental and occupational health problems; research on major non-communicable diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, blindness, diabetes and other metabolic and haematological disorders; mental health research and drug research (including traditional remedies). All these efforts are undertaken with a view to reduce the total burden of disease and to promote health and well-being of the population.
E. National Medicinal Plants Board
• The National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) set-up in November 2000 by the Government of India has the primary mandate of coordinating all matters relating to medicinal plants and support policies and programmes for growth of trade, export, conservation and cultivation.
• The Board is located in the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy (AYUSH) of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
Functions of the Board 
a) Assessment of demand/supply position relating to medicinal plants both within the country and abroad
b) Advise concerned Ministries/ Departments/ Organizations/ State/ UT Governments on policy matters relating to schemes and programmes for development of medicinal plants.
c) Provide guidance in the formulation of proposals, schemes and programmes etc. to be taken-up by agencies having access to land for cultivation and infrastructure for collection, storage and transportation of medicinal plants.
d) Identification, inventorisation and quantification of medicinal plants.
e) Promotion of ex-situ/in-situ cultivation and conservation of medicinal plants.
f) Promotion of co-operative efforts among collectors and growers and assisting them to store, transport and market their produce effectively.
g) Setting up of data-base system for inventorisation, dissemination of information and facilitating the prevention of Patents being obtained for medicinal use of plants which is in the public domain.
h) Matters relating to import/export of raw material, as well as value added products either as medicine, food supplements or as herbal cosmetics including adoption of better techniques for marketing of product to increase their reputation for quality and reliability in the country and abroad.
i) Undertaking and awarding Scientific, Technological research and cost-effectiveness studies.
j) Development of protocols for cultivation and quality control.
k) Encouraging the Protection of patent Rights and IPR.

Corporate Social Responsibility


Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR is the commitment by businesses to behave ethically and contribute to economic development, while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large.
The dimensions of the CSR triangular concept can be characterized as follows:
• The self-regulation approach is characteristic of most company-related initiatives. In this case, companies decide for themselves how far to engage in CSR and which CSR measures to implement. As the role of the state is limited, liability is limited, too.
• In legal regulation, the government is the most important player. This is reflected in multinational initiatives which are based on binding legal commitments, Individual codes of conduct for companies from one side of the spectrum, the legal instruments the other.
• Multi-stakeholder initiatives, such as the Global Compact or the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Companies, are located between the two extremes and can be defined conceptually as co-regulation approaches in which stakeholders are involved in a company’s CSR policy-making process. In this “third way”, NGOs, business associations, governmental organizations and multilateral institutions, among others, work together in a constructive manner to achieve complementary goals in the CSR process.
CSR can not only refer to the compliance of human right standards, labor and social security arrangements, but also to the fight against climate change, sustainable management of natural resources and consumer protection. The various practices followed by the corporate in different parts of the world differ significantly.
In the Developed nations, the basic needs of the population do not need so much support as in the under-developed nations. The demographies, literacy rate, poverty ratio and GDP of the country have significant role in determining the directions of CSR initiatives of an organization.
In the Asian context, CSR mostly involves activities like adopting villages for holistic development, in which they provide medical and sanitation facilities, build school and houses, and helping villages become self-reliant by teaching them vocational and business skills.
CSR provisions in India 
CSR in India has traditionally been seen as a philanthropic activity. And in keeping with the Indian tradition, it was an activity that was performed but not deliberated. The practice of CSR in India still remains within the philanthropic space, but has moved from institutional building (educational, research and cultural) to community development through various projects. Also, with global influences and with communities becoming more active and demanding, there appears to be a discernible trend, that while CSR remains largely restricted to community development, it is getting more strategic in nature (that is, getting linked with business) than philanthropic, and a large number of companies are reporting the activities they are undertaking in this space in their official websites, annual reports, sustainability reports and even publishing CSR reports. The Companies Act, 2013 has introduced the idea of CSR to the forefront.
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India has formally notified CSR provisions under the Section 135 of Companies Act 2013 and the related rules effective from 1st April 2014. As per the provisions of section 135, a company with turnover of INR 1000 crore or more or a net-worth of INR 500 crore or more or net profit of INR 5 crore or more in any financial year shall constitute a CSR Committee and would be required to spend at least 2% of their average net profits of the past three years on CSR activities. If for any reason a company is unable to do so, they would be required to explain the reason for that. An annual report on CSR activities must be included in the Board Report of a company spending on CSR.
The contribution of any State setup funds, social business projects has been removed. Further, it seems that the concept of shared value proposition has been ruled out, for instance, a company cannot choose a project which also support their business object. If a water purifier company do CSR in the area of providing safe drinking water and run a campaign to create awareness regarding safe drinking water, this will have a shared value proposition. Such company also derived some value for its future business prospects. The ambit of the Act does not specifically cover foreign companies, but Rules clearly includes foreign companies having its branch or project office in India.
The Companies Act has considerably widened the ambit of CSR activities which now includes:
• Poverty eradication
• Promotion of education, gender equality and women empowerment
• reducing child mortality and improving maternal health
• Combating AIDS/HIV, malaria and other diseases
• Ensuring environmental sustainability
• Employment-enhancing vocational skills and social business projects
• Relief and funds for socio-economic development such as for welfare of SC/ST, OBCs, minorities and women.
Clause 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 requires a CSR committee to be constituted by the board of directors. They will be responsible for preparing a detailed plan of the CSR activities including, decisions regarding the expenditure, the type of activities to be undertaken, roles and responsibilities of the concerned individuals and a monitoring and reporting mechanism. The CSR committee will also be required to ensure that all the income accrued to the company by way of CSR activities is credited back to the CSR corpus.

Access to Justice Project


Access to Justice Project

Access to justice is the ability of people to seek and obtain a remedy through formal or informal institutions of justice for grievances. There is no access to justice where citizens (especially marginalized groups) fear the system, see it as unfamiliar, and do not access it; where the justice system is financially inaccessible; where individuals have no lawyers; where they do not have information or knowledge of rights; or where there is a weak justice system.
Hence the Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India has been implementing a project on ‘Access to Justice for Marginalized People’ with UNDP support. The interventions under the Project are focused on strengthening access to justice for the poor, particularly women, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and minorities. The Project seeks, on the one hand, to improve the institutional capacities of key justice service providers to enable them to effectively serve the poor and disadvantaged. On the other hand, it aims to directly empower the poor and disadvantaged men and women to seek and demand justice services.
What is the GoI – UNDP Access to Justice Project About?
• In 2009, a Project on Access to Justice for Marginalized People was launched by the Department of Justice in collaboration with United Nations Development Programme.
• The Project aims to empower the poor and disadvantaged sections of society to seek and demand justice services.
• The Project also seeks to improve the institutional capacities of key justice service providers to enable them to effectively serve the poor and disadvantaged.
What is the duration of the Project?
The Project commenced in 2006 as a pilot phase for two years. The 1st Phase of the Project expanded from 2008-2013. The Project is currently in its second phase extending from 2013-2017.
What is the Geographic Coverage of the Project?
The Project has focused activities in eight States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
GIS Map Showing Operational States under Access to Justice Project
What are the broad deliverables of the Project?
The A2J Project aims to work closely with the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) and the State Legal Services Authorities (SLSAs) to ensure improved access to justice for the poor and the disempowered. With the overall objective of increasing access to justice for marginalised persons the Project has the following broad deliverables:
• Support national and local justice delivery institutions such as NALSA, SLSAs & SJAs
• Develop legal and representational capacity of Civil Society Organisations and networks providing access to justice services to disadvantaged groups (such as,
• Enhance legal awareness of women and men belonging to marginalized groups
• Inform policies and institutional structures through action research and studies.
Achievements so far
• Based on the success of the partnership, the Government has launched a similar project in Jammu and Kashmir and the North East of India with a budget allocation of US$ 6 million.
• More than 2 million people from marginalized communities are more aware of their legal rights and how to seek redressal of their grievances.
• As a result of convergence with the Ministry of Human Resource Development legal literacy has been included in the continuing adult literacy programme under the national Government of India literacy scheme, -Sakshar Bharat.
• Over 7,000 paralegals trained to better assist marginalized communities, drawn from diverse backgrounds including- SC, ST, Minorities, women SHGs, Muslim women, women living in urban slums and so on.
• The project has built greater synergy between ranges of key actors, both nationally and at state levels to better coordinate efforts in supporting the legal needs of marginalized communities.
A first-ever study conducted in India on legal aid clinics run by law schools and needs assessments of several State Legal Services Authority have enabled a better understanding of the barriers faced by marginalized communities in accessing justice.

National Crime Records Bureau


National Crime Records Bureau

National Crime Records Bureau, an attached office of Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India was established in 1986 with a mandate to empower Indian Police with information technology solutions and criminal intelligence to enable them to enforce the law effectively.
The National Crime Records Bureau, abbreviated to NCRB, is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC).
NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India. The current Director of NCRB is Ish Kumar (IPS), who replaced Radha Krishna Kini (IPS) in October 2016.
The objectives are:
• To prepare an enabling IT environment – policy framework, guidelines, architecture, best practices for Police Forces throughout the country To improve knowledge based pro-active policing with the use of IT for improving internal efficiency, effectiveness and public service delivery
• To lead and coordinate development of IT products and build a National Resource Centre of IT solutions for police organizations
• To create and maintain secure sharable National Databases on crimes, criminals, property and organized criminal gangs for law enforcement agencies and promote their use for public service delivery
• To obtain, compile, analyze and publish the National Crime Statistics
• To obtain, process and disseminate finger print records of criminals including foreign criminals to establish their identity; promote automation of State Finger Print Bureau. and encourage research for the development of Finger Print Science
• To provide training in IT and Finger Print Science for capacity building in Police Forces
• To coordinate development of Modern State Crime Records Bureau.
• To interact with Foreign Police Forces to share IT practices and crime information.
NCRB also compiles and publishes National Crime Statistics i.e. Crime in India, Accidental Deaths & Suicides, Prison Statistics and Finger Prints. These publications serve as principal reference points by policy makers, police, criminologists, researchers and media both in India and abroad.
NCRB has also floated various IT based Public Services like, Vahan Samanvyay (online Motor Vehicle Matching), Talash ( matching of missing persons and dead bodies). In addition, NCRB also maintains Counterfeit Currency Information and Management System (FICN) and Colour Portrait Building System (CBPS).
Major systems under National Crime Record Bureau
 Crime Criminal Information System (CCIS):
– CCIS is perhaps one of the biggest police application in the world implemented at 36 States and UTs, 727 police districts and at National level using standard input Integrated Investigation Forms, Operating system and RDBMS across the country.
– The MHA has entrusted NCRB with a renewed mandate for the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) Project. Out of approximately 15000 Police Stations, around 12000 have started registering 100% FIR’s online. The application software has been deployed in over 12500 locations.
– In view of the technological advancement in the field of IT the application is upgraded to support Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Gurmukhi, and Kannada beside Hindi and English to provide regional language support of these regions.
– Also the Enquiries and Reports are made web enabled to make crime criminal information available anywhere anytime through internet. Application has facility of decision support to view multi-dimensional view of data on crime, criminal and properties.
– This has brought in positive impact amongst the police officers about the application as they can get the information as and when required through internet. This latest version of the application is Christened as CCISMLe. The application is implemented at almost all the locations of the district and state headquarters in the country.
 Vahan Samanvay (Online Motor Vehicle Coordination System):
– In its endeavour of Public Service Delivery, NCRB has released its Motor Vehicle Coordination e-service, named ”Vahan Samanvay”. This is an excellent citizen centric interface for verification of the status of a motor vehicle (stolen or not) before negotiating for a pre-owned vehicle or recovery status of a stolen vehicle. This also facilitates law enforcement agencies and RTOs while checking the credentials of any vehicle.
– Many State/UT police organizations are also operating motor vehicle enquiry counters in their respective States/UTs for the convenience of general public. The enquiry service is also available online for the general public.
• Colour Portrait Building System (CBPS):
– Portrait Building System (PBS) help to extract Face components like Head, Eye, Nose, Mouth, Chin etc., described by witness similar to criminal, from the digitized portraits directory and assemble these components to construct face image of accused.
– By using PBS, NCRB has been assisting the Investigating Officers of States/UTs Police, CBI and other police agencies by preparing the Portraits of the accused based on the account given by the eyewitnesses.
• Fingerprint analysis and criminal training system (FACTS):
A FACT is an advanced Automated Fingerprint Identification System. It uses image processing and pattern recognition technique to capture, encode, store and match finger prints including comparison of Chance Prints.
Objectives of facts:
– To maintain and computerize finger print record slips of specified categories of Indian and foreign criminals convicted of offences falling under the schedule of crimes as mandated for CFPB.
– To conduct search of references relating to unidentified interstate suspected persons received from police stations and other investigating agencies in India and to search chance prints developed at the scene of crime.
– To maintain and computerize the fingerprint records of International criminals and to conduct search of references sent by Interpol Division of CBI, New Delhi.
Facts – data flow:

 Fake Indian Currency Notes Information System (FICN):
– NCRB has created a National level database and developed & deployed Web-enabled software for online recording and reporting of Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) Seizures made by State/UT Police, Investigation Agencies, Intelligence Agencies & CAPF and Detections made by Banks (RBI, Public Sector, Private Sector & Foreign Banks). The system is available at NCRB Web-Portal ncrb.gov.in and can be accessed round the clock by Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Finance and other authorized users. Exclusive training-cum-workshops have been conducted for all stakeholders.
Other facts:
– NCRB has recently received “Digital India Award 2016-Silver Open Data Championship” from the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India for uploading of Crime Statistics since 1965 on website.
– The Central Finger Print Bureau established in 1955, is also embedded in NCRB and is a national repository of all fingerprints in the country and has more than one million ten digit finger prints data base of criminals (both convicted and arrested), provides for search facility on FACTS (Fingerprint Analysis and Criminal Tracing System). It is proposed to upgrade to NAFIS in near future so that police stations will be able to send finger prints/ fire queries directly online to NCRB.
– NCRB also assists various States in capacity building in the area of Finger Prints, CCTNS, Network security and Digital Forensics through its training centers in Delhi and Kolkata. NCRB has conducted more than 750 training programmes and trained approximately 16000 officers till date including foreign law enforcement officers (1366 foreign officers from 93 countries).
– The Bureau looks forward to fostering of partnership with universities, researchers, NGOs and public.
– CCTNS once fully functional will allow search for a criminal / suspect on a national data base apart from providing various services to the citizens through Citizen Portal.
In future, it is also proposed to connect Police, Courts, Prosecution, Prisons and Forensic Labs into an Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS) for facilitating data exchange between the various pillars of criminal justice system.

Sai Praveen

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