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Disaster Management


Disaster Management

Disaster Management

What is a disaster?
A disaster is a physical event, phenomenon or human activity that leads to sudden disruption of normal life, causing severe damage to life and property to an extent that available social and economic protection mechanisms are inadequate to cope. Its origin can be natural or man-made.
Disasters could be, natural (geological, hydro-meteorological and biological) or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards).
Disasters proceed by cause-effect due to endogenous (inherent) and exogenous (external) factors, which combine to excite the phenomenon into a large-scale destructive event.
Disaster is disturbance of ‘equilibrium’ which can be restored/ remedied by proactive Policy in this regard. Hence, traditional perception of disasters as natural phenomena outside the realm of human intervention is not true. Disaster Management is an attempt to inquire into the process of a potential damage (hazard) turning to disaster, to identify the causes and rectify the same through public policy.
Classification of Disasters
Disasters are classified into natural and man-made disasters.
Nodal Ministries
Depending on the type of disaster, a nodal ministry has been assigned the task of coordinating all activities of the state and district administration and the other support departments/ministry. The following table below vividly gives the information:
Natural disasters in India
India’s Key Disaster Vulnerabilities are as follows:
• Coastal States, particularly on the East Coast and Gujarat are vulnerable to cyclones.
• 4 crore hectare landmass is vulnerable to floods
• 68 per cent of net sown area is vulnerable to droughts
• 55 per cent of total area is in seismic zones III-V, hence vulnerable to earthquakes
• Sub-Himalayan sector and Western Ghats are vulnerable to landslides.
The succeeding text analyses in brief vulnerabilities to specific natural hazards in India:
A. Floods
Seventy five per cent of rainfall is concentrated over four months of monsoon (June – September) as a result of which almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. The problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronisation of river floods compound the flood hazard with sea tides in the coastal plains. Ex. Brahmaputra and the Gangetic Basin are the most flood-prone areas. The other flood-prone areas are the northwest region of the west flowing rivers like Narmada and Tapti, Central India and the Deccan region with major east flowing rivers like Mahanadi, Krishna and Cauvery. While the area liable to floods is 40 million hectares, the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares.
B. Droughts
India has largely monsoon dependant irrigation network. An erratic pattern, both low (less than 750 mm) and medium (750 – 1125 mm) makes 68 per cent of the total area vulnerable to periodic droughts. A 100-year analysis reveals that the frequency of occurrence of below normal rainfall in arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid areas is 54-57 per cent. Severe and rare droughts occur in arid and semi-arid zones every 8-9 years. The semi-arid and arid climatic zones are subject to about 50 per cent of severe droughts that cover generally 76 percent of the area. In this region, rare droughts of most severe intensity occurred on an average once in 32 years and almost every third year was a drought year.
C. Cyclones
India has a long coastline. There are two distinct cyclone seasons:
1. Pre-monsoon (May-June)
2. Post-monsoon (October-November).
The impact of these cyclones is confined to the coastal districts, the maximum destruction being within 100 Km. from the centre of the cyclones and on either side of the storm track. Most casualties are caused by coastal inundation by tidal waves, storm surges and torrential rains.
D. Earthquakes
The Himalayan mountain ranges are considered to be the world’s youngest fold mountain ranges. The subterranean Himalayas are geologically very active. In a span of 53 years, four earthquakes exceeding magnitude 8 on the Richter scale have occurred in this region. The peninsular part of India comprises stable continental crust. Although these regions were considered seismically least active, an earthquake that occurred in Latur in Maharashtra on September 30, 1993 of magnitude 6.4 on the Richter scale caused substantial loss of life and damage to infrastructure.
E. Landslides and Avalanches
The Himalayan, the northeast hill ranges and the Western Ghats experience considerable landslide activity of varying intensities. River erosions, seismic movements and heavy rainfalls cause considerable activity. Heavy monsoon rainfall often in association with cyclonic disturbances results in considerable landslide activity on the slopes of the Western Ghats.
Avalanches constitute a major hazard in the higher reaches of the Himalayas. Parts of the Himalayas receive snowfall round the year and adventure sports are in abundance in such locations. Severe snow avalanches occur in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the Hills of Western Uttar Pradesh. The population of about 20,000 in Nubra and Shyok valleys and mountaineers and trekkers face avalanche hazard on account of steep fall.

Man-made disasters in India
A. Nuclear and radiological disasters
Any radiation incident resulting in exposure or contamination of the workers or the public in excess of the respective permissible limits can lead to a nuclear/radiological emergency. As the world is competing in nuclear race, nuclear and radiological emergencies are of relevance and concern to us.
But nuclear emergencies can still arise due to factors beyond the control of the operating agencies e.g. human error, system failure, sabotage, earthquake, cyclone, flood, etc. Such failures, may lead to an on-site or off-site emergency.
To combat this, proper emergency preparedness plans must be in place so that there is avoidable loss of life, livelihood, property and impact on the environment.
Nuclear emergencies being man-made in nature, maximum emphasis has been laid on the prevention without diluting other aspects. However, in the event of any emergency, these guidelines recommend a series of actions which are:
• Mitigate the accident at source
• Prevent deterministic health effects in individuals and limit the probability of stochastic effects in the population
• Provide first aid and treatment of injuries
• Reduce the psychological impact on the population
• Protect the environment and property, all under the constraint of available resources.
B. Chemical disasters
The growth of chemical industries has led to an increase in the risk of occurrence of incidents associated with hazardous chemicals (HAZCHEM).
Chemical accidents result in fire, explosion and toxic release. The nature of chemical agents and their concentration during exposure ultimately decides the toxicity and damaging effects on living organisms in the form of symptoms and signs like irreversible pain, suffering, and death. Meteorological conditions such as wind speed, wind direction, height of inversion layer, stability class, etc., also play an important role by affecting the dispersion pattern of toxic gas clouds further.
The dangerous gas and hazardous substances release during the chemical disasters affect life forms across the boundaries of neighbouring states and countries.
Bhopal Gas Tragedy of 1984- is the worst chemical disaster in history, where over 2000 people died due to the accidental release of the toxic gas Methyl Isocyanate, is still fresh in our memories. Such accidents are significant in terms of injuries, pain, suffering, loss of lives, damage to property and environment. Chemical disasters, though low in frequency, have the potential to cause significant immediate or long-term damage.
C. Biological disasters
Biological disasters are caused by epidemics, accidental release of virulent microorganism(s) or bioterrorism (BT) with the use of biological agents such as anthrax, smallpox, etc.
The existence of infectious diseases has been known in human civilisations since the dawn of history. The development of bacteriology and epidemiology later, established the chain of infection. Along with nuclear and chemical agents, who are derived from technology, biological agents have been accepted as agents of mass destruction capable of generating comparable disasters.
Along with the growth of societies, crop and animal diseases acquired more and more importance. Epidemics can result in heavy mortalities in the short term leading to a depletion of population with a corresponding drop in economic activity.
D. Toxic wastes
Human beings change their environment to suit their biological and social needs and in this transaction they utilize the resources and produce harmful by-products. These by- products are termed as Toxic wastes and may be in the form of gases, liquids or solids.
Direct or indirect exposure to toxic wastes has numerous adverse effects on humans from cancer to birth defects. The old pollutants like lead, mercury, industrial solvents and pesticide residues, are of great concern.
These wastes are derived mainly from chemical industries, energy production industries, pulp and paper producing factories, mining industries and leather tanning processes. Though all wastes are disposed off into the environment, some wastes are treated before disposal and others are disposed directly from the source.
Wastes produced from the combustion of fuel by motor vehicles are emitted directly into the atmosphere, and sewage wastes are disposed into rivers and oceans. Since air, rivers and oceans are global commons, this common ownership has facilitated unregulated disposal of wastes.
E. Urban flooding
Flooding in Urban areas is significantly different from rural flooding. Rapid urbanization leads to developed catchments which increases the flood volumes by up to 6 times. Consequently, flooding occurs very quickly due to faster flow times, sometimes in a matter of minutes.
Urban areas are centres of economic activities with vital infrastructure which needs to be protected. They are also densely populated and people living in vulnerable areas, both rich and poor, suffer due to flooding. It has sometimes resulted in loss of life, damage to property and disruptions in transport and power, bringing life to a halt.
Even the secondary effects of possible epidemics and exposure to infection takes further toll in terms of loss of livelihood, human suffering, and, in extreme cases, loss of life. Therefore, management of urban flooding has to be accorded top priority.
F. Road accidents
A road accident, also known as a motor vehicle collision (MVC), occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction. Road accidents may prove fatal and may result in injury, death and damage of property.
Of the worldwide annual average of 700,000 road accidents, 10 per cent occur in India.
In India, the situation with regard to road accidents is particularly acute. First official data of accidents in 2002, recording 80,118 deaths and 342,200 injuries on Indian roads but conceded at the same time that many cases went unreported and that 1,200,000 required hospitalisation.
Financial losses are staggering. A decade’s worth of saving the Rs 50,000 million estimated loss in traffic accidents every year could finance building 7,000 km long, six lane national highway at today’s rates. The figures are always on the increase, which corresponds to the tremendous increase in the production and sale of motor vehicles.
G. Wars and population displacement
War is a state of armed conflict between societies or countries. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called “peace”.
War is no more confined to war zones. In recent times there have been more civilian deaths than military deaths and thousands of people are being displaced as refugees. A high percentage of those dying or affected in these conflicts are children. Air power and wide ranging nature of modern war put entire population at risk, disrupting food production, imperilling fragile ecosystems and forcing entire populations to flee from their natural habitats.
During the past five decades civil wars representing power conflicts within nations have increased sharply. The relationship between people and their environment can be changed significantly during wartime. Certain resources are used more rapidly to fuel the war effort. Long lasting adverse environmental effects are attributed to areas where biological weapons are developed and tested.
H. Global warming
Global warming and climate change are terms used for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and its related effects on global climate. Multiple scientific evidences shows that the global climate system is warming
Human activities are tremendously contributing to environmental problems like global warming and ozone layer depletion. Both these problems have the making of a disaster. An increase in global temperatures is likely to affect many atmospheric parameters like precipitation and wind velocity resulting in an incidence of extreme weather conditions.
Indiscriminate burning of fossil fuels, emissions of pollutants from motor vehicles, emission of poisonous gases from chemical industries contributes to global warming. The effect is accelerated more by industrial and developed nations and the effect will be acutely felt by all the nations for no fault of theirs.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) acknowledged that human activities have been substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, and is determined to protect the climate system for the present and the future generations. The signatories agreed to promote and cooperate in education training and public awareness on various aspects related to climate change and encourage widest participation in this process including that of nongovernmental organisations.
Disaster Management Institutions in India
In the Central Government there are existing institutions and mechanisms for disaster management while new dedicated institutions have been created under the Disaster Management Act of 2005. Thus, the two structures co-exist at present.
The National Disaster Management Authority has been established at the centre, and the SDMA at state and district authorities at district level are gradually being formalized. In addition to this, the National Crisis Management Committee, part of the earlier setup, also functions at the Centre. The nodal ministries, as identified for different disaster types of function under the overall guidance of the Ministry of Home Affairs (nodal ministry for disaster management). This makes the stakeholders interact at different levels within the disaster management framework.
Two distinct features of the institutional structure for disaster management may be noticed. Firstly, the structure is hierarchical and functions at four levels – centre, state, district and local. In both the setups – one that existed prior to the implementation of the Act, and other that is being formalized post-implementation of the Act, there have existed institutionalized structures at the centre, state, district and local levels. Each preceding level guides the activities and decision making at the next level in hierarchy. Secondly, it is a multi-stakeholder setup, i.e., the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries, government departments and administrative bodies.

Civil Reform/Police Reform


Civil Services Reform Police Reforms in India

Civil Reform

Civil service refers to the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial.
The importance of the Civil Service to governance stems from the following: o Service presence throughout the country and its strong binding character
• Administrative and managerial capacity of the services
• Effective policy-making and regulation
• Effective coordination between institutions of governance o Leadership at different levels of administration.
• Service delivery at the cutting edge level o Provide ‘continuity and change’ to the administration.
In recent times, there has been accelerated change globally brought about by technological advances, greater decentralization and social activism. The ramifications of these changes are being felt by government in the form of increasing expectations for better governance through effective service delivery, transparency, accountability and rule of law. The civil service, as the primary arm of government, must keep pace with the changing times in order to meet the aspirations of the people. The purpose of ‘reform’ is to reorient the Civil Services into a dynamic, efficient and accountable apparatus for public service delivery built on the ethos and values of integrity, impartiality and neutrality. The reform is to raise the quality of public services delivered to the citizens and enhance the capacity to carry out core government functions, thereby, leading to sustainable development.
The ailments afflicting Indian civil services are:
• Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building
• Inefficient incentive systems that do not appreciate upright and outstanding civil servants but reward the corrupt and the incompetent
• Outmoded rules and procedures that restrict the civil servant from performing effectively
• Systemic inconsistencies in promotion and empanelment
• Lack of adequate transparency and accountability procedures – there is also no safety for whistle blowers
• Arbitrary and whimsical transfers – insecurity in tenures impedes institutionalization
• Political interference and administrative acquiescence
• A gradual erosion in values and ethics
• Patrimonialism
Components of Civil Service Reform
Reforms must take into account the role of the Civil Service in the governance needs of the day and the expectations generated from it. The main components of Civil Service Reform should pertain to the following:
A. Right sizing government
India needs a leaner and fitter civil service system. The recommendations are:
I. Retire 25% to 50% of the officers at the age of 52 to 55, as it is done in the Army;
II. Drastically reduce the cadre as well as ex-cadre posts, especially in the supertime and above, leading to slower promotions;
III. Encourage officers to join NGOs, educational and research institutes during mid-career. The DOPT should play a more active ‘placement’ role by maintaining a list of officers who wish to be out of the service for a temporary period, and liaise with the desirous NGOs and other institutions;
IV. Increase the period an officer can be out of the system from 5 to 7 years, without losing his seniority; and
V. Many posts in the government should be earmarked to permit lateral entry of people from NGO/ professional institutions at various levels to bring in a fresh outlook.
B. Stability of Tenure
A malaise afflicting the civil service generally is the instability of tenures, leading not only to a lack of sense of involvement but also to the inability to contribute effectively to amelioration of the system. Transfers have been used as instruments of reward and punishment, there is no transparency, and in the public mind transfer after a short stay is categorised as a stigma. Officers who are victimised are not in a position to defend themselves. Internally the system does not call for any reaction to explain one’s conduct, while externally public servants are debarred from going public to defend themselves.
Frequent transfers and limited tenures are playing havoc with public organisations. Thus there should be a high powered and statutory Civil Services Board in the States, which should process all proposals of postings and transfers and there should be an ACC kind of procedure (followed by the Government of India whereby an officer joins a Ministry for a fixed term of 4 – 5 years) in the States also. Once a person is posted he should not be transferred except by following the same procedure once more.
C. Professionalism
There is a need to restructure the systems and procedures as well as the style of functioning. The Indian civil service should modernise itself. The professionalising of its various activities is very essential. This will bring in speed, cut down redtape, reduce paper work, and trim down the cost of its maintenance.
An extensive training in office administration and administrative methods needs to be imparted to the officers of the non-All-India services. The officers of the All-India administrative services and the top grade services of the provincial governments should be encouraged to acquire computer literacy and get intensively trained in database, etc.
Professional skills of officers may relate to three functional categories – implementation, program/project preparation and policy formulation – as well as to specific themes (domain areas or specializations). Concrete effort needs to be directed towards encouraging civil servants to cultivate professional skills through direct work experience or through research.
D. Mobility for the Services and Lateral Entry of Professionals
In addition to the combined examination, recruitment should also be made by other methods, especially at the level of Joint Secretary and above, e.g. lateral entry with contractual appointment and lateral entry with permanent retention. Initial lateral entry may be by way of appointment as Officer on Special Duty with limited tenure assignments. If the inductee performs very well, she / he could be offered a permanent position and five per cent vacancies could be reserved for such entrants. There should be more lateral entry, which is at present restricted only to finance and economic department and Planning Commission. In USA, there is a lateral entry system at the highest levels which is open for all.
E. Accountability
For greater accountability, the following are some of the measures suggested:
• Strengthening and streamlining reporting mechanisms
• Streamlining and fast-tracking departmental enquiries
• Linking performance with incentives
• Overhaul of employee grievance procedures
• Action on audit findings
• Implementation of Citizens Charters’ for monitoring service delivery
• Right to Information Act and its enforcement
• Code of conduct for civil servants
The implementation of above stated reforms are necessary. Civil Service Reforms should aim at strengthening administrative capability to perform core government functions. These reforms raise the quality of services to the citizens that are essential to the promotion of sustainable economic and social development.

National Civil Aviation Policy


National Civil Aviation Policy

Recently government has released the National Civil Aviation Policy. The policy aims to take flying to the masses by making it affordable and convenient, establish an integrated eco-system which will lead to significant growth of the civil aviation sector to promote tourism, employment and balanced regional growth, enhance regional connectivity through fiscal support and infrastructure development and enhance ease of doing business through deregulation, simplified procedures and e-governance.
Vision: To create an eco-system to make flying affordable for the masses and to enable 30 crore domestic ticketing by 2022 and 50 crore by 2027, and international ticketing to increase to 20 crore by 2027. Similarly, cargo volumes should increase to 10 million tonnes by 2027.
Key Features of the Policy are:
• Scrapping of the decade-old 5/20 rule and replacing it with 0/20 norm: Earlier, a domestic airline could start international operations only after five years of domestic operations and having a fleet of at least 20 aircraft. As per new rules, they will be required to deploy 20 aircraft or 20% of the total fleet size, whichever is higher on domestic routes to get international flying rights.
• Regional Connectivity Scheme: Airlines will no longer be able to charge more than Rs. 2500 for a 1-hour flight connecting two small cities. The government will provide financial support to fund airlines’ losses on such un-served routes. A 2% levy has been proposed on all domestic and international flights on metro routes to boost regional connectivity. 50 No frills Airports, also called low cost airports, will be revived in the next three years. Airlines operating from these airports will get concessions on landing, parking charges and other expenses.
• Private Security Agencies: Private security agencies comprising of retired personnel from military and para-military forces will be encouraged for non-core security functions at the airports.
• Code sharing agreements: Indian carriers will now be able to enter into such agreements with foreign carriers for any destination within India on a reciprocal basis.
• Open Sky Policy: India will have this policy for countries beyond the 5000 km radius from Delhi on a reciprocal basis. This means that airlines from European or SAARC countries, will have unlimited access, in terms of number of flights and seats, to Indian airports, leading to increased flight frequencies with these countries.
• Growth of helicopters: This will be supported to provide connectivity to remote and inaccessible areas. Separate regulations for helicopters will be notified by DGCA.
• DGCA: Necessary administrative and financial flexibility will be provided to Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) for an effective aviation safety oversight system and for creating a transparent single-window system for all aviation safety related issues.
Organisations attached to civil Aviation in India
• Directorate General of Civil Aviation: It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety, and airworthiness standards.
• Bureau of Civil Aviation Security: The main responsibilities of BCAS include laying down standards and measures with respect to security of civil flights at international and domestic airports in India.
• Air India: It is owned by Air India Limited, a Government of India enterprise and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving 84 domestic and international destinations.
• Airports Authority of India: It aims at accelerating the integrated development, expansion, and modernization of the operational, terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the country conforming to international standards.
• Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. : Its objective is to provide helicopter support services to the Oil Sector for its off-shore exploration operations, services in remote and hilly areas as well as charter services for promotion of travel and tourism.

National Youth Policy, 2014


National Youth Policy, 2014

The government has launched the National Youth Policy (NYP 2014) to cater the needs of youth in India. It is a comprehensive policy document that states the vision of the Government of India (GOI) for the youth of the country and also how this vision is sought to be realised by the government.
NYP-2014 caters to needs of the youth in the age-group of 15-29 years, which constitutes 27.5 per cent of population. The target groups identified are (i) Student Youth (ii) Migrant Youth (iii) Rural Youth (iv) Tribal Youth (v) Youth At Risk (vi) Youth in violent conflicts (vii) out of school/dropouts (viii) groups with social /moral stigma (ix) Youth in Institutional Care. Young women, Youth belonging to socially and economically disadvantaged communities /groups, and differently abled youth form the three priority groups among the target age group.
NYP 2014 identifies the vision and the five key objectives for youth development that are further sub-divided into 11 priority areas. It further suggests policy imperatives that should be implemented in each of these identified priority areas. The concerns of target groups and the priority groups therein, shall be addressed through a subsequent action plan based on policy interventions.
NYP 2014 seeks to achieve a productive workforce through education, skill development for better employability and entrepreneurship training; a healthy generation with sports as a way of life; a sense of community service and strong social values; high levels of participation in governance; and social inclusiveness by creating equitable opportunities for all. The thrust areas are promotion of National values, social harmony, national unity, and empowering youth through employable skills, education, health, sports and recreation, gender justice, participation in community service, environment and local governance.
The NYP 2014 will be implemented in four steps –
• GOI will formulate an action plan within 6 months for the implementation of the policy across all the concerned ministries and department;
• The MYAS also constituted a Youth Council consisting of exceptional youth from across the country to oversee the implementation of the policy;
• A set of short-term and long-term indicators for measuring the success of the policy; and
• The youth are encouraged to engage their elected representatives and the government if there is any shortcomings in the implementation of youth oriented schemes as outlined in the NYP.
Youth Development Index will include the indices viz. Youth Health Index, Youth Education Index, Youth Work Index, Youth Amenities Index, and Youth Participation Index.

Schemes for Overseas Indians


Schemes for Overseas Indians

1. Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)
The ‘Indian Community Welfare Fund’ (ICWF) provides contingency expenditure incurred by the Indian Missions for carrying out welfare activities for Overseas Indian Citizens who are in distress. The ICWF scheme has the following objectives:
• Boarding and lodging for distressed Overseas Indian workers in Household / domestic sectors and unskilled labourers;
• Extending emergency medical care to the Overseas Indians in need;
• Providing air passage to stranded Overseas Indians in need;
• Providing initial legal assistance to the Overseas Indians in deserving cases;
• Expenditure on incidentals and for airlifting the mortal remains to India or local cremation/burial of the deceased Overseas Indians in such cases where the sponsor is unable or unwilling to do so as per the contract and the family is unable to meet the cost;
• Providing the payment of penalties in respect of Indian nationals for illegal stay in the host country where prima facie the worker is not at fault;
• Providing the payment of small fines/penalties for the release of Indian nationals in jail/detention centre;
• Providing support to local Overseas Indian Associations to establish Overseas Indian Community Centres in countries that have population of Overseas Indians exceeding 1,00,000; and
• Providing support to start and run Overseas Indian Community-based student welfare centres in Countries that have more than 20,000 Indian student’s presence.
2. Know India Programme (KIP)
Know India Programme (KIP) of the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA) is a three-week orientation programme for Diaspora youths (between the age of 18-26 years) of Indian origin conducted in partnership with one State Government with a view to introduce India to them and promote awareness on different facets of Indian life and the progress made by the country in various fields e.g. economic, industrial, education, science & technology, communication & information technology and culture.
This programme provides a unique forum for students and young professional of Indian origin to visit India, share their views and to bond closely with contemporary India. After end of KIP, Indian Diaspora Youths become Youth Ambassadors of art, culture, heritage and positive image of India.
3. Study India Programme (SIP)
First ‘Study India Programme’ (SIP) was launched for the first time from 25.09.2012 to 23.10.2012 in Symbiosis University, Pune, Maharashtra with participation of 9 youths of Indian origin from four countries like Trinidad & Tobago, Malaysia, Fiji and South Africa. Like KIP, SIP has immense potential of connecting youth Indian Diaspora with Indiathrough the channel of educational institutions. SIP will be held twice a year for a  period of 4 weeks involving maximum 40 diaspora youths in the age-group of 18-26 years.
It will enable overseas Indian youth to undergo short term course in an Indian University to familiarize them with the history, heritage, art, culture, socio-political, economic developments etc. of India.
The focus of the programme is on academic orientation and research. Cost of boarding, lodging, local transportation & course fee during the programme to be borne by GOI. 50% of the cost of air-ticket by economy class would be borne by GOI. Gratis Visas by Indian Mission are granted to the participants. SIP will be organized twice a year.
4. Scholarship Programme For Diaspora Children (SPDC)
Scheme launched by MOIA in 2006-07 to make higher education in India accessible to the children of overseas Indians and promote India as a centre for higher studies.
Under the scheme, 100 scholarships up to US $4000/- per course per annum are offered to PIO and NRI students (50 each) for undergraduate courses in Engineering, Science, Law, Management, etc. The scheme is open to NRIs/PIOs from 40 countries with substantial Indian Diaspora population.
Under this scheme, over 468 PIO/NRI students have benefited since inception & 100 students have been selected in the current batch.
5. Overseas Indian Youth Club (OIYC)
MOIA has also launched a new scheme named ‘Overseas Indian Youth Club’ through our Missions abroad. Purpose is to keep the overseas Indian youth in touch with the developments in India & create a sense of belongingness towards their Country of origin.
In order to continue the momentum of affinity and networking of the Diaspora youth with their ancestral motherland, MOIA has supported opening of Overseas Indian Youth Club (OIYC) in CGI Durban, South Africa, HCI Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, HCI Colombo, Sri Lanka, HCI Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago and HCI Port Louis, Mauritius. Similarly, opening of OIYC is making headway in CGI Melbourne, Australia and HCI Singapore.

Sai Praveen

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