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Awards/Schemes for Human Resource Development


Awards related to ScienceScience and Technology as a Source of Human Resource Development

Awards

• Nobel Prize: The Nobel Prize is awarded to scientists with outstanding achievements in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for peace. The set of annual international awards are bestowed by Swedish and Norwegian committees. Awarded in honor of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, the awards are the top most honors in the field of science.
• The Copley Medal: It is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, London to anyone with outstanding achievements in any field of science.
• Albert Einstein World Award of Science: The award is presented by the World Cultural Council as an incentive to science and technological research and development. The main motto is to honor those scientists whose works have done good to the mankind. The recipient of the award is selected by an interdisciplinary committee, which is composed of world renowned scientists including Nobel laureates.
• Kyoto Prize: It is Japanese award that recognized outstanding work in the field of science and technology along with philosophy and arts.
• Kavli Prize: The prize is awarded to the scientists with outstanding work in the field of astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. A joint venture between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letter, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research and the Kavli Foundation, the organization also awards three international prizes every second year.
• India Science Award: India Science Award is the highest and the most prestigious national recognition by the Government of India for outstanding contribution to science. The primary and essential criterion for the award is demonstrated and widely accepted excellence in science. The award covers all areas of research in science including engineering, medicine and agriculture.
• Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize: The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology (SSB) is a science award in India given annually by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for notable and outstanding research, applied or fundamental, in biology, chemistry, environmental science, engineering, mathematics, medicine and Physics. The purpose of the prize is to recognize outstanding Indian work (according to the view of CSIR awarding committee) in science and technology. It is the most coveted award in multidisciplinary science in India.

Vijayanagar/ Other Regional States


VijayanagarOther Regional States

Vijayanagar

VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE
Sources
• The sources for the study of Vijayanagar are varied such as literary, archaeological and numismatics.
• Krishnadevaraya’s Amukthamalyada, Gangadevi’s Maduravijayam and Allasani Peddanna’s Manucharitam are some of the indigenous literature of this period.
• The Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, Venetian traveler Nicolo de Conti, Persian traveler AbdurRazzak and the Portuguese traveler Domingo Paes were among eminent foreign travelers who left valuable accounts on the socio-economic conditions of the Vijayanagar Empire.
• The copper plate inscriptions such as the Srirangam copper plates of Devaraya II provide the genealogy and achievements of Vijayanagar rulers.
• The Hampi ruins and other monuments of Vijayanagar provide information on the cultural contributions of the Vijayanagar rulers.
• The numerous coins issued by the Vijayanagar rulers contain figures and legends explaining their tittles and achievements.

Political History
• The Vijayanagarempire was founded in 1346 as a direct response to the challenge posed by the sultanate of Delhi.
• The empire was founded by brothers, Harihara and Bukka. Their dynasty was named after their father, Sangama.
• There are several theories with regard to the origin of this dynasty. According to some scholars, they had been the feudatories of the Kakatiyas of Warangal and after their fall they served the Kampili state.
• Another view says that they were the feudatories of the Hoysalas and belonged to Karnataka.
• Harihara and Bukka were helped and inspired by contemporary scholar and a saint Vidyaranya for the establishment of their kingdom. It is believed that to commemorate the memory of their guru, the brothers established the city of Vidyanagar or Vijayanagara on the banks of river Tungabhadra.
• The empire included people from different cultural regions, the Tamil, Telegu and Karnataka region who all spoke different languages and belonged to different cultures.
• Between 1336 and 1565, Vijayanagar was ruled by three different dynasties- Sangama, who remained in power till 1485; the Saluva who remained in power till 1503 and the Tuluvas.
• The last dynasty was the Aravidu dynasty that ruled till seventeenth century.
• Foreign travellers like Nicolo Conti, FernaoNuniz ,DomingoPaes, Duarto Barbosa and AbdurRazzaq wrote about the magnificence of Vijayanagar.
Krishna Deva Raya (1509 – 1530)
• The Tuluva dynasty was founded by ViraNarasimha.
• The greatest of the Vijayanagar rulers, Krishna Deva Raya belonged to the Tuluva dynasty. He possessed great military ability. His imposing personality was accompanied by high intellectual quality. His first task was to check the invading Bahmani forces.By that time the Bahmani kingdom was replaced by Deccan Sultanates.
• The Muslim armies were decisively defeated in the battle of Diwani by Krishna Deva Raya.
• Then he invaded Raichur Doab which had resulted in the confrontation with the Sultan of Bijapur, Ismail Adil Shah. Krishna Deva Raya defeated him and captured the city of Raichur in 1520. From there he marched on Bidar and captured it.
• Krishna Deva Raya’s Orissa campaign was also successful.
• He defeated the Gajapathi ruler Prataparudra and conquered the whole of Telungana.
• He maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese.
• Albuquerque sent his ambassadors to Krishna Deva Raya.
• Though a Vaishnavaite, he respected all religions. H
• e was a great patron of literature and art and he was known as Andhra Bhoja.
• Eight eminent scholars known as Ashtadiggajas were at his royal court.
• AllasaniPeddanna was the greatest and he was called AndhrakavitaPitamaga. His important works include Manucharitam and Harikathasaram.
• PingaliSuranna and Tenali Ramakrishna were other important scholars.
• Krishna Deva Raya himself authored a Telugu work, Amukthamalyadha and Sanskrit works, JambavatiKalyanam and Ushaparinayam.
• He built the famous Vittalaswamy and HazaraRamaswamy temples at Vijayanagar.
• He also built a new city called Nagalapuram in memory of his queen Nagaladevi.
• Besides, he built a large number of Rayagopurams.
• After his death, Achutadeva and Venkata succeeded the throne.
• During the reign of Rama Raya, the combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golkonda and Bidar defeated him at the Battle of Talaikotta in 1565.
• This battle is also known as RaksasaThangadi.
• Rama Raya was imprisoned and executed. The city of Vijayanagar was destroyed. This battle was generally considered to mark the end of the Vijayanagar Empire.
• However, the Vijayanagar kingdom existed under the Aravidu dynasty for about another century.
• Thirumala, Sri Ranga and Venkata II were the important rulers of this dynasty.
• The last ruler of Vijayanagar kingdom was Sri Ranga III.
Administration
• The king enjoyed absolute authority in executive, judicial and legislative matters.
• He was the highest court of appeal.
• The succession to the throne was on the principle of hereditary.
• Sometimes usurpation to the throne took place as SaluvaNarasimha came to power by ending the Sangama dynasty.
• The king was assisted by a council of ministers in his day to day administration.
• The Empire was divided into different administrative units called Mandalams, Nadus, sthalas and finally into gramas.
• The governor of Mandalam was called Mandaleswara or Nayak.
• Vijayanagar rulers gave full powers to the local authorities in the administration.
• Besides land revenue, tributes and gifts from vassals and feudal chiefs, customs collected at the ports, taxes on various professions were other sources of income to the government.
• Land revenue was fixed generally one sixth of the produce.
• The expenditure of the government includes personal expenses of king and the charities given by him and military expenditure.
• In the matter of justice, harsh punishments such as mutilation and throwing to elephants were followed.
Army and Military Organisation of the Vijayanagar Empire
• In order to wage continuous warfare there was a need to keep a large army.
• Artillery was important and well bred horses were maintained.
• The Vijayanagar rulers imported high quality horses from across the Arabian Sea from Arabia and other Gulf countries.
• The port of Malabar was the centre of this trade and trade in other luxury commodities. The Vijayanagar rulers always attempted to control the port of Malabar.
• Like the Bahamanis, the Vijayanagar state also was familiar with the use of firearms and employed Turkish and Portuguese experts to train the soldiers in the latest weaponry of warfare.
• One of the rayas, Deva Raya II enrolled Muslims in his armed services, allotted them jagirs and erected a mosque for their use in the city.
• The walls of the forts to counter the firearms were now made thick and special kinds of door with fortified walls front were constructed.
• On the walls of the forts, special kinds of big holes were made to rest the guns. Special kinds of parapets were constructed on the forts to put the canons on it.
• Firearms were used. Some firearms were small and comprised of rifles and pistols. Some like canons were heavy and had to be put on a bullock cart or on an elephant and pushed into the battlefield.
• One of the important characteristics of the Vijayanagar administration was the amaranayaka system. In this system, the commander of the Vijayanagar army was called the nayaka. Each nayaka was given an area for administration.
• The nayaka was responsible for expanding agricultural activities in his area. He collected taxes in his area and with this income maintained his army, horses, elephants and weapons of warfare that he had to supply to the raya or the Vijayanagar ruler. The nayaka was also the commander of the forts.
• Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works. The amara-nayakas sent tribute to the king annually and personally appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty.
• In the seventeenth century, several of these nayakas became independent and established separate states.
• The feudal Nayankaras used to maintain their own soldiers, forces and elephants. They were a powerful section that challenged the Vijayanagar authority, weakened its internal structures and contributed to the defeat of the Vijayangar in the battle of Talikota.
Social Life
• AllasaniPeddanna in his Manucharitam refers the existence of four castes – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras – in the Vijayanagar society.
• Foreign travelers left vivid accounts on the splendour of buildings and luxurious social life in the city of Vijayanagar.
• Silk and cotton clothes were mainly used for dress.
• Perfumes, flowers and ornaments were used by the people.
• Paes mentions of the beautiful houses of the rich and the large number of their household servants.
• Nicolo Conti refers to the prevalence of slavery.
• Dancing, music, wrestling, gambling and cock-fighting were some of the amusements.
• Chidambaram speak the glorious epoch of Vijayanagar. They were continued by the Nayak rulers in the later period.
• The metal images of Krishna Deva Raya and his queens at Tirupati are examples for casting of metal images.
• Music and dancing were also patronized by the rulers of Vijayanagar.
Economic Condition
• According to the accounts of the foreign travelers, the Vijayanagar Empire was one of the wealthiest parts of the world at that time.
• Agriculture continued to be the chief occupation of the people.
• The Vijayanagar rulers provided a stimulus to its further growth by providing irrigation facilities.
• New tanks were built and dams were constructed across the rivers like Tunghabadra. Nuniz refers to the excavation of canals.
• There were numerous industries and they were organized into guilds.
• Metal workers and other craftsmen flourished during this period.
• Diamond mines were located in Kurnool and Anantapur district.
• Vijayanagar was also a great centre of trade.
• The chief gold coin was the varaha but weights and measures varied from place to place.
• Inland, coastal and overseas trade led to the general prosperity.
• There were a number of seaports on the Malabar coast, the chief being Cannanore.
• Commercial contacts with Arabia, Persia, South Africa and Portugal on the west and with Burma, Malay peninsula and China on the east flourished.
• The chief items of exports were cotton and silk clothes, spices, rice, iron, saltpeter and sugar.
• The imports consisted of horses, pearls, copper, coral, mercury, China silk and velvet clothes. The art of shipbuilding had developed.
Cultural Contributions
• The temple building activity further gained momentum during the Vijayanagar rule.
• The chief characteristics of the Vijayanagara architecture were the construction of tall Raya Gopurams or gateways and the Kalyanamandapam with carved pillars in the temple premises.
• The sculptures on the pillars were carved with distinctive features. The horse was the most common animal found in these pillars.
• Large mandapams contain one hundred pillars as well as one thousand pillars in some big temples. These mandapams were used for seating the deity on festival occasions.
• Also, many Amman shrines were added to the already existing temples during this period.
• The most important temples of the Vijayanagar style were found in the Hampi ruins or the city of Vijayanagar.
• Vittalaswamy and HazaraRamaswamy temples were the best examples of this style.
• The Varadharaja and Ekamparanatha temples at Kanchipuram stand as examples for the magnificence of the Vijayanagara style of temple architecture.
• The Raya Gopurams at Thiruvannamalai and Chidambaram speak the glorious epoch of Vijayanagar.
• They were continued by the Nayak rulers in the later period.
• The metal images of Krishna Deva Raya and his queens at Tirupati are examples for casting of metal images.
• Music and dancing were also patronized by the rulers of Vijayanagar.
• Different languages such as Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada and Tamil flourished in the regions.
• There was a great development in Sanskrit and Telugu literature.
• The peak of literary achievement was reached during the reign of Krishna Deva Raya.
• He himself was a scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu.
• His famous court poet AllasaniPeddanna was distinguished in Telugu literature.
BAHMANI KINGDOM
• The Deccan region was a part of the provincial administration of the Delhi Sultanate.
• In order to establish a stable administration in the Deccan, Mohammad bin Tughlaq appointed amiran-i-sada/ Sada Amir, who were the administrative heads of hundred villages.
• From 1337 the conflict between the officers in Deccan and Delhi sultanate accelerated which led to the establishment of an independent state in the Deccan in 1347 with the capital at Gulbarga in Andhra Pradesh.
• Its founders Haran Gangu assumed the title AlauddinHasanBahman Shah as he traced his descent from the mythical hero of Iran, Bahman Shah and the kingdom was named after him, the Bahamani Sultanate.
• After Mohammad bin Tughlaq there were no attempts by the Delhi Sultanate to control the Deccan region, therefore, the Bahamani Sultans without any checks annexed the kingdom.
• There were a total of fourteen Sultans ruling over this kingdom. Among them, AlauddinBahman Shah, Muhammad Shah I and Firoz Shah were important.
• Ahmad Wali Shah shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
• The power of the Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the rule of Muhammad Shah III. It extended from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal. On the west it extended from Goa to Bombay. On the east, it extended from Kakinada to the mouth of the river Krishna.
• The success of Muhammad Shah was due to the advice and services of his minister Mahmud Gawan.
• One of the important acquisitions was the control over Dabhol, an important port on the west coast.
• Under Bahman Shah and his son Muhammmad Shah, the administrative system was well organised.
• The kingdom was divided into four administrative units called ‘taraf’ or provinces. These provinces were Daultabad, Bidar, Berar and Gulbarga.
• Muhammad I defeated the Vijayanagar kingdom and consequently Golconda was annexed to Bahamani kingdom.
• Every province was under a tarafdar who was also called a subedar.
• Some land was converted into Khalisa land from the jurisdiction of the tarafdar. Khalisa land was that piece of land which was used to run expenses of the king and the royal household.
• Further the services and the salary of every noble was fixed. Those nobles who kept 500 horses were given 1000,000 huns annually.
• If short of the stipulated troops, the tarafdar would have to reimburse the amount to the central government.
• Nobles used to get their salary either in cash or in form of grant of land or ‘jagir’ .
• Bahamani ruler depended for military support on his amirs.
• There were two groups in the ranks of amirs: One was the Deccanis who were immigrant Muslims and had been staying for a long time in the Deccan region. The other group was Afaquis or Pardesis who had recently come from Central Asia, Iran and Iraq and had settled in the Deccan region recently.
• Between both these groups there was always tension to appropriate better administrative positions and because of their feuds, the stability of the Bahamani Sultanate was affected.
• For the first time in India both Bahamani and Vijaynagar kingdoms used gunpowder in the warfare.
• The Bahamanis were already familiar with the use of firearms. They employed Turkish and Portuguese experts to train the soldiers in the latest weaponry of warfare.
Mahmud Gawan
• One of the most important personalities in the Bahamani kingdom was Mahmud Gawan. The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the guidance of Mahmud Gawan.
• Mahmud Gawan’s early life is obscure. He was an Iranian by birth and first reached Deccan as a trader. He was granted the title of ‘Chief of the Merchants’ or Malikut-Tujjar by the Bahamani ruler, Humayun Shah.
• The sudden death of Humayun led to the coronation of his minor son Ahmad III. A regency council was set for the administration and Mahmud Gawan was its important member.
• He was made wazir or the prime minister and was given the title of ‘Khwaju-i-Jahan.’
• The history of Bahmani kingdom after this period is actually the record of the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
• He lived a simple life and was magnanimous. He was also a learned person. He possessed a great knowledge of mathematics.
• He made endowments to build a college at Bidar which was built in the Persian style of architecture.
• He was also a military genius. He waged successful wars against Vijayanagar, Orissa and the sea pirates on the Arabian sea.
• His conquests include Konkan, Goa and Krishna-Godavari delta and thus he expanded the Bahmani Empire through his conquests.
• Despite of being an Afaqui he was liberal and wanted a compromise between the Afaquis and the Deccanis.
• He controlled the kingdom in an efficient manner and provided it stability.
• Gawan conquered the Vijayanagar territories up to Kanchi.
• On the western coast, Goa and Dhabol were conquered. Losing these important ports was a great loss for Vijayanagar.
• Bahamani strengthened its trading relations with Iran and Iraq after gaining control over Goa and Dabhol.
• His administrative reforms were were aimed to increase the control of Sultan over the nobles and provinces.
• Gawan carried out many internal reforms and attempted to put an end to the strife in the nobility. Royal officers were appointed in each province for this purpose. Most of the forts were under the control of these officers.
• In order to curb the military power of the tarafdar, Gawan ordered that only one fort of each province was to be under the direct control of the provincial tarafdar.
• The remaining forts of the province were placed under a Qiladar or commander of the forts. The Qiladar was appointed by the central Government.
• However, soon after his death, the governors declared their independence and the Bahamani kingdom broke up.
• In the fifteenth and the sixteenth century, some amirs in Bidar, Ahmadnagar, Golconda and Bijapur and Berar established independent sultanates of their own and formed new states.
• These were the NizamShahis of Ahmadnagar, the AdilShahis of Bijapur, the QutbShahis of Golconda, and the ImadShahis of Berar and the BaridShahis of Bidar.
• They formed a league of states and strengthened them by matrimonial alliances.
• They maintained the traditional rivalry with the Vijayanagar rulers.
• Golconda and Bijapur entered into matrimonial alliances and led the Battle of Talikota against Vijayanagar.
• They finally succumbed to the Mughal armies.
Conflicts between the Vijayanagar and the Bahamani Kingdoms
• There were constant conflicts between the Vijayanagar and the Bahamani kingdoms over the control of Raichur doab which was the land between rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra.
• This area was fertile and rich in mineral resources. The famous diamond mines of Golconda were located in the eastern part of the doab region.
• The geography of both the kingdoms was such that expansion was possible only across Tungabhadra in the Deccan.
• It appears that the battles between the two were not conclusive and the status quo was maintained.
• Sometimes, Bahamani had an advantage and sometimes, Vijayanagar had an advantage. For instance, in 1504, the Bahamani managed to reconquer the Raichur doab. However, with the ascent of Krishna Deva Raya, the Bahamanis lost Raichur, Mudkal, Nalgonda and other inland towns.
• An important result of these wars was that both the powers were so involved amongst themselves that they never realized the increasing power of the Portuguese on the coast of South India.
• Besides, continuous warfare exhausted the resources of both the states and weakened them.
• The other areas of conflict were the Marathwada region and the deltaic region of Krishna-Godavari.
• Both regions had fertile areas and important ports that controlled trade to the foreign countries.
• The fertile area in the Marathwada region was the Konkan belt that also had the port of Goa which was an important region for trade and export and import especially import of horses from Iraq and Iran.
• Often, the battles between the Vijayanagar and the Bahamani states are perceived as Hindu-Muslim conflicts, but the above mentioned reasons show that the struggle was not due to any religious differences.
• Territorial and economic motives were the main causes for the war.
• Despite hostilities between the two states, there were times when they also co-operated with each other.
• Krishna Deva Raya, for example, supported some claimants to power in the Sultanates and took pride in the title “establisher of the Yavana kingdom”.
• Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur intervened to resolve succession disputes in Vijayanagra following the death of Krishna Deva Raya.
• There were also sharing and exchange of ideas, especially in the field of art, literature and architecture.

Doping


Doping

‘Doping’ refers to an athlete’s use of prohibited drugs or methods to improve training and sporting results. Steroids are the drugs that often come to mind when we talk about doping, but doping also includes an athlete’s use of other forbidden drugs (such as stimulants, hormones, diuretics, narcotics and marijuana), use of forbidden methods (such as blood transfusions or gene doping), and even the refusal to take a drug test or an attempt to tamper with doping controls.
Prohibited substances are:
• Stimulants directly affect the central nervous system, increasing blood flow and heart rate.
• Narcotic analgesics decrease the sensation of serious injuries, allowing athletes to continue training for competition after serious injuries.
• The cannabis products include marijuana and hashish.
• Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that affect the  metabolism  of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins, and regulate glycogen and blood pressure levels.
National Anti Doping Agency (NADA) was set up as registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1890 on November 24, 2005 with a mandate for Dope free sports in India. The primary objectives are to implement anti-doping rules as per WADA code, regulate dope control programme, to promote education and research and creating awareness about doping and its ill effects.

Net Neutrality


Net Neutrality

Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers and governments should treat all data on the Internet equally, not discriminating or charging differentially by user, content, site, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or mode of communication.
Net Neutrality is about:
a) No telecom-style licensing of Internet companies
b) No gateways (Internet.org, Airtel OneTouch Internet, Data VAS), censorship or selection;
c) No speeding up of specific websites
d) No “zero rating” or making some sites free over others
Significance of Net Neutrality
a) Without Net Neutrality, cable and phone companies could carve the Internet into fast and slow lanes. An ISP could slow down its competitors’ content or block political opinions it disagreed with.
b) ISPs could charge extra fees to the few content companies that could afford to pay for preferential treatment — relegating everyone else to a slower tier of service. This would destroy the open Internet.
c) Net Neutrality is crucial for small business owners, startups and entrepreneurs, who rely on the open Internet to launch their businesses, create a market, advertise their products and services, and distribute products to customers.
The Department of Telecom has formed a panel headed by A K Bhargava to examine economic impact of implementation of net-neutrality principle on the sector.

Cloud Seeding


Cloud Seeding

Introduction:
• Natural rainfall occurs when supercooled cold water contacts particles of dust, salt or sand forming ice crystals. The ice crystals provide a nucleus (tiny solid or liquid particles, suspended in the atmosphere) around which more water droplets can attach, increasing the size of the droplet, or in colder air snow flakes. When the droplet or snow flake, becomes large enough, it falls as snow or rain.
• It is the technique of inducing rain from a cloud, usually by dropping suitable particles into clouds containing supercooled water in an attempt to cause them to dissipate, modify their structure, or alter the intensity of associated phenomena, such as wind speed or hail.
• Weather modification, commonly known as cloud seeding, is the application of scientific technology that can enhance a cloud’s ability to produce precipitation.
• Cloud seeding is the process of spreading either dry ice, or more commonly, silver iodide aerosols, into the upper part of clouds to try to stimulate the precipitation process and form rain.
• Weather Modification, is on the forefront of scientific technology to maximize water availability worldwide.
• Application of scientific concepts and extensive scientific experimentation has proven that cloud seeding increases the amount of precipitation.
There are three cloud seeding methods: static, dynamic and hygroscopic.
• Hygroscopic cloud seeding disperses salts through flares or explosives in the lower portions of clouds. The salts grow in size as water joins with them.
• Static cloud seeding involves spreading a chemical like silver iodide into clouds. The silver iodide provides a crystal around which moisture can condense. The moisture is already present in the clouds, but silver iodide essentially makes rain clouds more effective at dispensing their water.
• Dynamic cloud seeding aims to boost vertical air currents, which encourages more water to pass through the clouds, translating into more rain. Up to 100 times more ice crystals are used in dynamic cloud seeding than in the static method.
The process is considered more complex than static clouding seeding because it depends on a sequence of events working properly.

Praveen

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