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Space Organizations/Terminology

Space Organizations in IndiaTerminologies Related to the Space Science

Space Organizations

1. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)
• The VSSC at Thiruvananthapuram is the largest among the ISRO facilities for the development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technology. The centre had its beginnings as the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962. It was renamed in honour of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space program.
• November 21, 1963 marked India’s first venture into space, with the launch of a two-stage Nike Apache sounding rocket from TERLS. The first rockets launched were built in United States.
• The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre is one of the main research and development establishments within ISRO. VSSC is an entirely indigenous facility working on the development of sounding rockets, the Rohini and Menaka launchers, and the Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and GSLV Mk III families of launch vehicles.
• The VSSC pursues research and development in the fields of aeronautics, avionics, composites, computer and information technology, control guidance and simulation, launch vehicle design, mechanical engineering, mechanisms vehicle integration and testing, propellants polymers and materials, propulsion propellants and space ordnance, and systems reliability.
• Current focus of VSSC is on the (GSLV), the GSLV Mk III and the Reusable Launch Vehicle- Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD).
• VSSC also has programs focused on applications of space technology including village resource centres, telemedicine, tele-education, disaster management support and outreach through Direct To Home television broadcast.
2. ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC)
• The ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) is the leading centre of ISRO for design, development, fabrication and testing of all Indian made satellites. It was established in the year of 1972 as Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) in Bengaluru.
• The centre has produced more than 50 satellites including the INSAT series, the Indian Remote Sensing series, as well as the GSAT communication satellites. Organisations under the umbrella of ISAC include the Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS) and the ISRO Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment (ISITE).
• The LEOS is mainly responsible for research, development and production of Sensors for ISRO programmes. The ISITE houses all facilities for building a spacecraft under-one-roof. It provides necessary support for testing sub-systems and spacecraft to meet the requirements of space environment.
3. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC)/ Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR)
• Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) or Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR) is a rocket launch centre of ISRO. It is located in Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh. Features like a good launch azimuth corridor for various missions, nearness to the equator (benefiting eastward launches), and large uninhabited area for a safety zone make it an ideal spaceport.
• The SHAR facility now consists of two launch pads, with the second built in 2005. The second launch pad was used for launches beginning in 2005 and is a universal launch pad, accommodating all of the launch vehicles used by ISRO. The two launch pads will allow multiple launches in a single year, which was not possible earlier.
• SHAR will be the main base for the Indian human spaceflight program. A new third launch pad will be built specifically to meet the target of launching a manned space mission by 2017.
4. Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC)
• Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) is the lead Centre for development and realization of earth-to-orbit advanced propulsion stages for Launch Vehicles and also the in-space propulsion systems for Spacecrafts. It is involved in the development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion for launch vehicles and satellites.
• The LPSC activities and facilities are spread across its two campuses viz., LPSC Headquarters and Design Offices and Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Unit.
• LPSC is engaged in development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion stages for launch vehicles and auxiliary propulsion systems for both launch vehicles and satellites. Activities related to liquid propulsion stages, cryogenic propulsion stages and control systems for launch vehicles and spacecraft is done at Thiruvananthapuram. Precision fabrication facilities, development of transducers and integration of satellite propulsion systems are carried out at Bangalore. The developmental and flight tests along with assembly and integration are done at ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu.
5. Space Applications Centre (SAC)
• The SAC focuses on the design of space-borne instruments for ISRO missions and development and operationalisation of applications of space technology for societal benefits. It is engaged in the development of pay loads for communication, broadcasting, navigation, disaster monitoring, meteorology, oceanography, environment monitoring and natural resources survey.
• This includes research and development of on-board systems, ground systems and end user equipment hardware and software. Some of the achievements of the Space Applications Centre include development of communication and meteorological payloads for INSAT satellites, optical and microwave payloads for IRS satellites.
• SAC provides its infrastructure to conduct training courses to the students of the Center for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and The Pacific (CSSTEAP). SAC has three campuses, two of which are located at Ahmedabad and one at Delhi.
6. Antrix Corporation Limited
• Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL) is a wholly owned Government of India Company, under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS). It is the apex marketing agency under DOS with access to resources of DOS as well as Indian space industries.
• Antrix promotes and commercially markets the products and services emanating from the Indian Space Programme. In the year 2008, the Company was awarded ‘MINIRATNA’ status. The current business activities of Antrix are as follows:
a) Provisioning of communication satellite transponders to various users,
b) Providing launch services for customer satellites,
c) Marketing of data from Indian and foreign remote sensing satellites,
d) Building and marketing of satellites as well as satellite sub-systems,
e) Establishing ground infrastructure for space applications, and
f) Mission support services for satellites.

Mughal Empire/ Administration/Mughal Art & Culture

Mughal (Babur & Humayun) and Sur DynastyMughal Dynasty (Akbar Onwards) Mughal Administration, Society and Culture

Mughal Empire

• Babur (Zahiruddin Muhammad) was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India.
• Babur was related to Timur from his father’s side and to Chengiz Khan through his mother.
• Babur succeeded his father Umar Shaikh Mirza as the ruler of Farghana, but was soon defeated by his distant relative and as a result lost his kingdom.
• He became a wanderer for sometime till he captured Kabul from one of his uncles.
• Then, Babur took interest in conquering India and launched three expeditions between 1519 and 1523.
• The opportunity to fullfil his ambition came to Babur when he was invited to India by discontented party, Daulat Khan Lodhi the most powerful noble of the Punjab and Alam Khan an uncle of Ibrahim Khan Lodhi sought Babur to help to fight against Ibrahim Lodhi.
• India was then distracted by ambitions, rivalries and disaffection of nobles and the Delhi sultanate existed only in name.
• Babur, a man of adventurous spirit at once responded to the call which presented him an excellent opportunity for giving effect to his long cherished ambition.
• This was his fourth expedition in which he occupied Lahore in 1524 and such occupation was not what Daulat Khan desired.
• He had hoped that Babur would retire after a raid leaving the field clear for him and so he turned against him and Alam Khan also joined hands with him.
• Babur had to retire to Kabul to collect re-enforcements.
• Babur soon re-occupied the Punjab in 1525 and Daulat Khan Lodhi submitted to Babur.
• On the eve of Babur’s invasion of India, there were five prominent Muslim rulers – the Sultans of Delhi, Gujarat, Malwa, Bengal and the Deccan – and two prominent Hindu rulers – Rana Sangha of Mewar and the Vijayanagar Empire.
• Most of the soldiers and officers of Daulat Khan Lodhi joined the ranks of Babur.
• Babur got rid of all the self seeking Afghan nobles of the Punjab.
• He received messages of support from disaffected and opportunists nobles of Ibrahim’s court and Rana Sangha of Mewar is also said to have sent him an invitation for a joint invasion of Delhi.
Military Conquests
• On 21st April 1526 the first Battle of Panipat took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, who was killed in the battle.
• One of the causes of Babur’s success in the battle was that Babur was seasoned General whereas Ibrahim was a head strong, inexperienced youth. As Babur remarks he was ‘an inexperienced man, careless in his movements, who marched without order, halted or retired without method and engaged without foresight.’
• Babur was the master of a highly evolved system of warfare which was the result of a scientific synthesis of the tactics of the several Central Asian people. While Ibrahim fought according to the old system then in existence in the country.
• Babur had a park of artillery consisting of big guns and small muskets while Ibrahim’s soldiers were absolutely ignorant of its use.
• Also, Ibrahim did not get the backing of his people which weakened his power.
• Moreover his army was organised on clannish basis.
• The troops lacked the qualities of trained and skilful soldiers.
• Babur was right when he recorded in his diary that the Indian soldiers knew how to die and not how to fight.
• On the other hand Babur’s army was well trained and disciplined and shared the ambition of conquering rich Hindustan.
• Babur occupied Delhi and sent his son Humayun to seize Agra.
• Babur proclaimed himself as “Emperor of Hindustan”.
• His subsequent victories over Rana Sangha of Mewar and the Afghans secured his position as the ruler of India. He marched against Babur and in the Battle of Khanua (near Agra) held in 1527 Babur won a decisive victory over him. Babur assumed the title Ghazi.
• This battle supplemented Babur’s work at Panipat and it was certainly more decisive in its results.
• The defeat of the Rajputs deprived them of the opportunity to regain political ascendancy in the country for ever and facilitated Babur’s task in India and made possible the foundation of a new foreign rule.
• In 1528, Babur captured Chanderi from another Rajput ruler Medini Rai.
• In 1529, Babur defeated the Afghans in the Battle of Gogra in Bihar.
• By these victories, Babur consolidated his power in India.
• Babur died at Agra in 1530 at the age of forty seven.
Estimate of Babur
• Babur was a great statesman and a man of solid achievements.
• He was also a great scholar in Arabic and Persian languages.
• Turki was his mother tongue and he wrote his memoirs, Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki language. It provides a vivid account of India.
• He frankly confesses his own failures without suppressing any facts.
• He was also a naturalist and described the flora and fauna of India.
• Humayun succeeded Babar in December 1530 at the young age of 23 and the newly conquered territories and administration was not yet consolidated.
• Unlike Babur, Humayun did not command the respect and esteem of Mughal nobility.
• The Chaghatai nobles were not favourably inclined towards him and the Indian nobles, who had joined Babur’s service, deserted the Mughals at Humayun’s accession.
• He also confronted the hostility of the Afghans mainly Sher Khan in Bihar on the one hand and Bahadurshah, the ruler of Gujarat, on the other.
• As per the Timurid tradition Humayun had to share power with his brothers.
• The newly established Mughal empire had two centres of power; Humayun was in control of Delhi, Agra and Central India, while his brother Kamran had Kabul and Qandhar and by subsequently annexing the Punjab, had deprived him of the main recruiting ground of his army.
• However, the granting of the Punjab and Multan had the advantage that Humayun was free to devote his attention to the eastern part without having to bother about his western frontier.
• In A.D. 1532, Humayun first turned his arms against the Afghans, who under Sultan Mahmud Lodi threatened his position in the east and defeated the Afghan forces which had conquered Bihar and overrun Jaunpur in eastern Uttar Pradesh at a place called Daurah near Lucknow.
• After this success Humayun besieged Chunar then held by the able Afghan chief named Sher Khan.
• Sher Khan showed a submission and Humayun made a fatal mistake in allowing Sher Khan to retain possession of Chunar.
• Humayun was anxious to return to Agra as he had to face the growing power of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
• The attitude of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was hostile to Humayun from the very beginning. Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah but could not retain his conquest as he was soon recalled to the east to meet the revolt of Sher Khan.
• Humayun marched into Bengal but Sher Khan did nothing to oppose him as his object was to lure Humayun into the interior and then to cut off his communication.
• In the Battle of Chausa (A.D. 1539) Humayun was completely defeated by Sher Khan.
• In 1540 Humayun had one more encounter with Sher Shah at Bilgram near Kannauj but again met with a crushing defeat and was compelled to leave Hindustan.
• The battle of Kannauj (A.D. 1540) was bitterly contested and it decided the issue between Sher Khan and the Mughals.
• Humayun now became a prince without a kingdom; Kabul and Qandhar remaining under Kamran.
• Wandering Humayun found temporary refuge at Amarkot from where he made his way to Persia.
• The Persian king Shah Tahmasp, agreed to help him on condition that Humayun should conform to the Shia creed.
• Humayun yielded to the necessity and conquered Kabul and Qandhar from his brother Kamran, with the help of Persian troops.
• Freed from his brother’s opposition Humayun was now in a position to attempt the reconquest of India.
• He had secured the services of an able officer named Bairam Khan and the time was also favourable to him.
• Humayun defeated the Afghan forces of Sikandar Sur and occupied Agra and Delhi (A.D. 1555).
• It is clear that the major causes of Humayun’s failure against Sher Khan was his inability to understand the nature of the Afghan power.
• Due to existence of large numbers of Afghan tribes scattered over north India, the Afghans could always unite under a capable leader and pose a challenge.
• In 1556, Humayun died after tumbling down from the staires of his library.
• His peaceful personality, patience and non-provocative methods of speech earned him the title of Insan-i-Kamil (Perfect Man), among the Mughals.
Sher Shah (The Second Afghan Empire)
• The first Afghan kingdom under the Lodis was replaced by the Mughals under Babur in 1526.
• After a gap of 14 years Sher Shah succeeded in establishing the Afghan rule again in India in 1540.
• Sher Shah and his successors ruled for 15 years and this period is known as the period of second Afghan Empire.
• The founder of the Sur dynasty was Sher Shah, whose original name was Farid.
• He was the son of Hasan Khan, a jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar.
• Later, Farid served under the Afghan ruler of Bihar, who gave him the title Sher Khan for his bravery.
• He defeated Humayun at the Battle of Chausa and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
• Sher Khan was a great tactician and able military commander.
• Sher Shah waged extensive wars with the Rajputs and expanded his empire.
• His conquests include Punjab, Malwa, Sind, Multan and Bundelkhand.
• His empire consisted of the whole of North India except Assam, Nepal, Kashmir and Gujarat.
• Sher Shah after his death in 1553 was succeeded by his son Islam Shah.
• Islam Shah had to face a number of conflicts with his brother Adil Khan and many Afghan nobles.
• The Afghan empire was substantially weakened. Humayun saw an opportunity and moved towards India who again captured his lost kingdom by 1555 and ended the second Afghan Empire.
Sher Shah’s Administration
• Although Sher Shah’s rule lasted for five years, he organized a brilliant administrative system.
• The central government consisted of several departments. The king was assisted by four important ministers:
1. Diwan –i- Wizarat – also called as Wazir – in charge of Revenue and Finance.
2. Diwan-i-Ariz – in charge of Army.
3. Diwan-i-Rasalat – Foreign Minister.
4. Diwan-i-Insha – Minister for Communications.
• Sher Shah’s empire was divided into forty seven sarkars.
• Chief Shiqdar (law and order) and Chief Munsif (judge) were the two officers in charge of the administration in each sarkar.
• Each sarkar was divided into several parganas. Shiqdar (military officer), Amin (land revenue), Fotedar (treasurer) Karkuns (accountants) were in charge of the administration of each pargana.
• There were also many administrative units called iqtas.
Land Revenue System
• Sher Shah’s most striking contribution was made in the field of revenue.
• Sher Shah, however, as the only sovereign who is known to have gained a practical experience in managing a small body of peasants before rising to the throne came with his scheme of revenue settlement readymade and successfully tested by experiment. It was but an extension of the system introductioned by him at Sasaram.
• As a monarch, he unilatereally decided that the best system of assessment must be based on actual measurement. According, the empire was surveyed.
• In order to ensure the accuracy of measurement and honestry of collection he fixed the wages of the measurers and the collectors.
• The uniform system of measurement in spite of strong opposition from some quarters, was enforced all over the empire, with the exception of Multan where political turmoil could endanger the security of the State.
• But in Multan too, a record was kept of the settlement made between the government and the cultivator, and the latter was given a title deed (Patta) in which conditions of the settlement were specifically stated.
• According to the schedule of Sher Shah’s assessment rates the revenue on perishable articles was fixed in cash rates, but for all the principal staple crops, the land was classified into three classes-good, middling and bad.
• After the average produce of the three was added, one-third of the total was taken as the average produce of each bigha for revenue purposes.
• Of this, one-third was demanded as the share of the government. It could be paid in cash or in kind though the former mode was preferred. In case of cash payments, the state demand was fixed according to the prices prevalent in the near markets and a schedule of crop of crop rates was preserved indicating the method and the rates of assessment.
• The state gave a patta to each cultivator, which specified the state demand. The cultivator was also obliged to sign a qabuliat (deed of agreement) promising to honour the revenue due from him. Both the documents contained information on the size of the plot.
• Sher Shah’s revenue settlement has been unanimously acclaimed. And it has been contended hat it provided the basis for Todar Mal’s bandobust in Akbar’s reign, as also for the Ryotwari system in British India.
• Notwithstanding its obvious strengths it would be unrealistic to describe his revenue settlement as a master-piece; for the system was not without defects.
• Sher Shah was the first ruler who considered the welfare of the people as essential for the interests of the state.
• He was benign in times of drought and famine. The state, under such circumstances, would lend money and material to the cultivators.
• He instructed the army not to damage any crops and in any damage, to adquately compensate.
Other Reforms
• He removed the currency which had debased under the later Turko-Afghan regimes and instead issued well executed coins of gold, Silver and Copper of a uniform standard.
• His silver rupee which weighed 180 grams and contained 175 grains of silver was retained throughout the Mughal period as also by the British East India Company, till 1885.
• Besides the coins of smaller fractions of a rupee, the copper coins too had fractions of half quarter, eighth and sixteenth.
• Sher Shah gave every possible encouragement to the trade and commerce and took a number of measures for this purpose.
• He did away with all the internal custom duties with the exception of the two. These two duties were charged at the time of entry of the goods in the kingdom and at the time of the actual sale.
• Foreign goods were permitted to enter Bengal duty free.
• Sher Shah paid special attention to the safety and convenience of the merchants and had issued specific instructions to his officers in this regards.
• Sher Shah not only took necessary measures to ameliorate the condition of the people but also paid attention to the promotion of education. He gave liberal grants to both the Hindu and Muslim educational institutions.
• The Hindus were free to regulate their educational institutions and Sher Shah did not interfere in their working.
• Similarly, the Muslim educational institution were mainly attached with mosques and imparted elementary education to the children.
• To help the poor and brilliant students he awarded liberal scholarships.
• Sher Shah also made liberal provisions for the support of blind, the old, the weak, widows etc.
• Sher Shah had also improved the communications by laying four important highways. They were:
1. Sonargaon to Sind
2. Agra to Burhampur
3. Jodhpur to Chittor
4. Lahore to Multan.
• Primarily planned for military purposes, these highways proved equally effective for the growth of trade ans commerce.
• Along both sides of these roads, Sher Shah ordered the planting of fruit trees and the sinking of fresh wells.
• Another important feature of the public works comprised the building of the Serais (Rest-houses).
• The Serais were fully furnished, with well equipped kitchens and cooks for both the Hindus and the Muslims.
• Sher Shah also repaired about 1,700 Caravan Serais for the efficiency of the royal posts.
• Soon, the Serais functioned as post offices and marketing centres and Sher Shah posted news-readers in the various Serais to keep abreast of the local gossip.
• Rest-houses were built on the highways for the convenience of the travelers.
• Police was efficiently reorganized and crime was less during his regime.
• The Shiqdars and the Shiqdar-i-Shiqdaran were responsible for the maintenance of law and order in Parganas and Sarkars.
• The village headmen were obliged to look after their areas.
• The largest responsibility rested with the Muqaddams and Chowdharies, who were severely punished, in case they failed to detect the crimes.
• The military administration was also efficiently reorganized and Sher Shah borrowed many ideas like the branding of horses from Alauddin Khalji.
Estimate of Sher Shah
• Sher Shah remained a pious Muslim and generally tolerant towards other religions. He employed Hindus in important offices.
• He was also a patron of art and architecture. He built a new city on the banks of the river Yamuna near Delhi. Now the old fort called Purana Qila and its mosque is alone surviving.
• He also built a Mausoleum at Sasaram, which is considered as one of the master pieces of Indian architecture.
• Sher Shah also patronized the learned men.
• Malik Muhammad Jayasi wrote the famous Hindi work Padmavat during his reign.
• After Sher Shah’s death in 1545 his successors ruled till 1555 when Humayun reconquered India.
Fall of the Sur Dynasty
• After the death of Sher Shah his son Islam Shah came to the throne in I545. Though he did not inherit the Qualities of his father yet he kept his heritage intact for 8 years. After his death, in October 1553 the Sur dynasty began to disintegrate.
• The Afghan empire was partitioned and was ruled by three independent Nobles namely Ibrahim Khan Sur in Delhi and Agra, Muhammad adil Shah In the East and the Punjab under Sikander Shah.
• The various provinces of Malwa, Rajputana, Bengal and Bundelkhand proclaimed independence.
• The ongoing political chaos provided Humayun with the needful opportunity to stage a come back in India.
• He defeated Sikander Sur in a battle near Sirhind in 1555 and occupied Delhi and Agra.
• The Second Afghan Empire like the first one once again fell to the tribal concepts and political intrigues of the Afghan nobility.
• The field was left to the Mughals and Akbar used every opportunity to retrieve the Mughal prestige and power.

Fixed Dose Combination Drugs

Fixed Dose Combination Drugs

Fixed-dose combination drugs are produced when two or more active drugs combine in a fixed ratio into a single dosage.
• For example, a combination of Nimesulide and Paracetamol that is prescribed as an anti-pyretic (used to prevent or reduce fever).
• Cough syrups, Phensedyl and Corex, the widely advertised Vicks Action 500, antibiotic combination Zimnic AZ are some of the popular FDCs, which involve commonly used medications such as Paracetamol and Nimesulide.
The development of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective.
• FDCs are used in the treatment of a wide range of conditions and are particularly useful in the management of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, which are considered to be the foremost infectious disease threats in the world today.
• FDCs have advantages when there is an identifiable patient population for whom treatment with a particular combination of actives in a fixed ratio of doses has been shown to be safe and effective and when all of the actives contribute to the overall therapeutic effect.
• In addition there can be real clinical benefits in the form of increased efficacy
• Potentially lower costs of manufacturing compared to the costs of producing separate products administered concurrently
• Simpler logistics of distribution
• Improved patient adherence
However Government of India has banned 344 fixed dose combinations as it was found that the available FDCs in India are without any therapeutic use. A lot of FDCs sold in India are unapproved, given the lack of coordination between state and central regulators. A study published in the journal of Public Library of Science (PLOS) in May found that over 70% of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) combinations, which are used as painkillers, were being marketed in India without central government approval. There were also concerns about developing resistance against FDCs and decrease in physical immunity in the long run.
These drugs have dangerous side-effects and that many of these combinations do not have any advantage over the individual drugs.
They pose a risk to humans and there are safer alternatives available in the market. The combination is not approved for sale in major pharmaceutical markets, including the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan.

Spatial Technology

Spatial Technology

• It is the digital connection between location, people and activities. This technology can graphically illustrate what is happening (where, how and why) to show the insight and impact of the past, the present and the (likely) future.
• This new information technology field acquires, manages and analyses data that has geographic, temporal, and spatial context.
• It also includes development and management of related information technology tools, such as aerial and satellite remote sensing imagery, the Global Positioning System (GPS), and computerised geographic information systems (GIS).
• Satellite images bring daily weather reports and provide farmers with information for precision agriculture.
• Airborne infra-red scanners track our bushfires.
• Ambulance dispatch services.
• Global positioning systems monitor the location of thousands of trucks and taxis.
• Real estate sales use geographic information systems.
• All kinds of mapping.
• Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), a Web Based School Geographical Information System (GIS) application has been initiated for seamless visualization of school locations across the country.
• In this web application, base map services like street maps, and high resolution satellite images are available for better understanding of the topography/ terrain of the location.

Hybrid Vacuum Toilets

Hybrid Vacuum Toilets

Indian Railway come up with the development of new Toilets that combines the advantages of Vacuum toilets and those of Biotoilets to create a new design of “Hybrid Vacuum Toilet”.
A prototype of the new hybrid vacuum toilet has been made that comprises a modified vacuum toilet that is used in aircraft and a biodigester tank, which converts the excreta into water and gas with the help of anaerobic bacteria. The filth will get reduced and the dumping of solid waste on the tracks, a practice that has faced criticism for all sectors, will also stop.
How it works:
• A water pressurising unit is attached with the fresh water tank above the toilet pot. This unit passes the water through spray nozzles into the pot.
• An vacuum-creating ejector sucks out the waste from the pot to the bio-digester tank.
• A push button and a control unit is in place for the flush switch on the wall of the toilet.
This initiative aims at conserving water and reducing its waste. An average bio-toilet, which are commonly found in trains, use 10 to 15 litres of water per flush. The vacuum toilet, on the other hand, consumes around 500 ml of water per flush. This step will certainly take the Indian Railways closer to being at par with those in foreign countries.
The following diagram shows how the prototype will work:


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