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Mobile Generation


Mobile Generations and Technology

Mobile Generation

The Evolution of Wireless Generations – 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G 
0G Wireless technology
0G refers to pre-cell phone mobile telephony technology, such as radio telephones that some had in cars before the advent of cell phones. Mobile radio telephone systems preceded moderncellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation ofcellulartelephones, these systems are called 0G (zero generation) systems.
1G: Analog Cellular Networks
The main technological development that distinguished the First Generation mobile phones from the previous generation was the use of multiple cell sites, and the ability to transfer calls from one site to the next as the user travelled between cells during a conversation. The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generations) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979.
2G: Digital Networks
In the 1990s, the ‘second generation’ (2G) mobile phone systems emerged, primarily using theGSM standard. These 2G phone systems differed from the previous generation in their use of digital transmission instead of analog transmission, and also by the introduction of advanced and fast phone-to-network signaling. The rise in mobile phone usage as a result of 2G was explosive and this era also saw the advent of prepaid mobile phones.
The second generation introduced a new variant to communication, as SMS text messaging became possible, initially on GSM networks and eventually on all digital networks. Soon SMS became the communication method of preference for the youth. Today in many advanced markets the general public prefers sending text messages to placing voice calls.

“2.5G” using GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) technology is a cellular wireless technology developed in between its predecessor, 2G, and its successor, 3G. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.
3G : High speed IP data networks
As the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to use mobile phones in their daily lives, it became clear that demand for data services (such as access to the internet) was growing. Furthermore, if the experience from fixed broadband services was anything to go by, there would also be a demand for ever greater data speeds. The 2G technology was nowhere near up to the job, so the industry began to work on the next generation of technology known as 3G. The main technological difference that distinguishes 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet switching rather than circuit switching for data transmission.
4G: Growth of mobile broadband
Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. It is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was in its elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP network. Thus, 4G ushered in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of streaming audio media, utilizing packet switching over internet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.

Administration before 1857/Economic Policies


Administration Before 1857Economic Policies of the British Economic

Administration before 1857

• The East lndia Company began as a trading corporation. Its early organisation was suitable to that of a purely trade organisation.
• Each Chief “factory” or trading establishment was under the control of a President, later called Governor, and a Council, consisting of the senior servants of the company in the factory.
• New and less important factories were put under the charge of a senior merchant or “factor”.
• The Commercial factories which had a President as head came to be called Presidencies, such as those of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.
• The jurisdiction and control of the company grew by different processes, namely the acquisition of Zamindari rights, conquest or cession of territory and assumption of the Diwani.
• In 1698 the company bought the Zamindari rights of the villages of Sutanati, Calcutta and Govindpur.
• In 1757 the company acquired rights in the twenty-four parganas on the basis of a quit rent which was subsequently assigned to the company.
• In 1760 Mir Qasim ceded to the company the district of Burdwan, Chittagong and Midnapur and this was confirmed by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam.
• Over Englishmen the company relied upon its Chartered Rights while over Indians the authority of the Company was that of a Zamindar under a local fauzdar.
• After the battle of Buxar in 1764 the British became the supreme power in Bengal.
• When the British took control of Bengal, they tried to establish administration according to their requirements.
• Before 1765 the Nawab of Bengal was looking after the administration. Theoretically he was working as an agent of the Mughal Emperor, but in practice he had absolute authority.
• As Nawab he was incharge of law and order, military power and criminal justice and as Diwan he was responsible for the revenue collection and administration of civil justice.
• In 1764 after the Battle of Buxar the British became supreme power in Bengal. Open annexation would have created political complication both for the company in India and the home government.
• The company therefore procured an order from the Mughal emperor granting them the diwani (rights to collect land revenue) for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
• Even in the exercise of its powers as diwan, the actual collection of revenue initially remained in the hands of the Nawab’s deputies. The nizamat remained in the hands of the Nawab.
• The dual nature of administration came to an end in 1772, when the company decided to take actual control of revenue collection.
• The company had now grown from a predominantly commercial into a predominantly territorial power.
• With the expansion of political power of the company misuse of power by its officials also increased and the acquisition of political power by the company was questioned in England and there was pressure on parliament to intervene.
• Continuous wars and mis-management by the company officials landed it in deep financial crisis.
• The company requested parliament for financial help. The parliament agreed on the – condition that it will regulate the administration of company in England and India.
• For this purpose the Regulating Act of 1773 was passed.

The Charter Acts

• The Charter Acts were passed by the British Parliament to govern the activities of the East India Company, endowed it with enormous Commercial privileges and granted them the powers to rule India up to 1858.
• The Charter Acts issued enabled the East India Company, commercial privileges in several series, for twenty years each.
• The first Charter Act was granted in 1793, granting the company provision of 20 years.
• Later the Charter Act was renewed in the year 1813, 1833 and 1853 respectively.
Regulating Act of 1773
• The Regulating Act of 1773 might be regarded as the first serious attempt by the British Parliament to regulate Indian affairs. It constituted for the first time:
– A supreme government, headed by a Governor General of Fort William in Bengal and four Councillors, having the supervisory authority over the presidencies of Bombay and Madras.
– The presidencies were forbidden to make war or peace with Indian states without the consent of Governor General and Council, except in cases of imminent necessity and also in the cases where they had received direct orders from the court of Directors.
– Provision for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta.
– The Act recognized the right of Parliament to regulate the civil, military and revenue affairs of the company’s territories in India and registers the first concern in the intervention of the Indian affairs.
• The Act suffered from certain fundamental defects which contributed to the difficulties of Warren Hastings who was opposed by his councillors.
• The Act was also vague about the jurisdiction control over subordinate presidencies and the jurisdiction between the Supreme Council and the Supreme Court.
• As a consequence of the defects of the Act, Warren Hastings found himself unable to carry out his administrative responsibilities and one crisis often developed after another in the council.
Pitt India Act 1784
• On assumption of office of the Prime Minister, William Pitt introduced an India Bill and it was passed into a law in August 1784. According to this Act:
– Distinction between territories and commerce was to be maintained.
– Territorial administration was to be placed under a representative body of Parliament while the Company was to continue to control commerce.
– The government in India however, would still be run in the name of the company but political and revenue matters would be subject to the control and supervision of the proposed parliamentary body.
• Pitt’s India Act established an effective instrument of control, direction and supervision which worked with slight alterations till 1858, and the control of the Crown was now complete over India.

• In the first half of the nineteenth century the character of legislation for the administration of British territories was to some extent influenced by Utilitarian thought and principles.
Charter Act of 1813
• The renewal of the Charter in 1813 was marked by expression of liberal principles. The Charter Act of 1813 renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company, and continued the Company’s rule in India.
• However, the Company’s commercial monopoly was ended, except for the tea trade and the trade with China.
• According to Charter Act of 1813:
– Administration of the company was left in its hands but the monopoly of the Company’s Indian trade was abolished.
– The Act expressly asserted the Crown’s sovereignty over British India.
– It allotted Rs 100,000 to promote education in Indian masses.
– This act permitted Christian missionaries to propagate English and preach their religion.
– The power of the provincial governments and courts in India over European British subjects was also strengthened by the Act.
– Financial provision was also made to encourage a revival in Indian literature and for the promotion of science
Charter Act of 1833
• By the Act of 1833, the Company surrendered all its personal property in India and held it in trust for the crown.
• The company disappeared as a commercial agency in India, remaining as a political agent for the crown.
• Now the government of India was reconstituted on a new model which gave it in all India character. It contained the following provisions:
– It re-designated the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India. Under this provision Lord William Bentinck became the first Governor-General of India.
– It deprived the Governors of Bombay and Madras of their legislative powers.
– The Governor-General was given exclusive legislative powers for the whole of British India.
– It ended the activities of the British East India Company as a commercial body and became a purely administrative body.
– In particular, the Company lost its monopoly on trade with China and other parts of the Far East.
– It attempted to introduce a system of open competitions for the selection of civil servants. However this provision was negated after opposition from the Court of Directors who continued to hold the privilege of appointing Company officials.

Judicial System

• The early Charters of the Company gave it authority to make reasonable laws, ‘constitutional orders’ and ‘ordinances’ and within limits to punish offences committed by its servants, but they gave no territorial powers of jurisdiction.
• In 1661 Charles II authorised the Governor and Council of each factory to exercise criminal and civil jurisdiction, not only over the Company’s servants, but over all persons under the said Governor or Company.
• After the assumption of Diwani the Company to some extent, became responsible for civil justice.
• In criminal matters Muhammadan law was followed, but in civil cases the personal law of the parties was applied.
• In civil suits appeals lay to the Sadar Diwani Adalat which in effect meant the President and members of Council while criminal appeals lay with Sadar Nizamat Adalat which was under the Nawab.
• However, the first concrete step in organizing judicial administration was taken up by Warren Hastings. He for the first time made the district as a unit of judicial administration.
– In each district civil and criminal courts were established.
– In each district collectors were to preside civil courts, and in criminal courts an Indian officer worked with the help of two maulvis.
– Over the district courts were created the courts of appeal at Calcutta.
– The Sadar Diwan Adalat consisted of the Governor and two members of the council assisted by the Diwan of the exchequer, the head Qanungo etc.
– Sadar Nizamat Adalat was presided over by the Nazim’s deputy, a muslim officer, who was assisted by Maulvis.
• In 1773 the Regulating Act set up the Supreme Court in Bengal which derived its power from the Crown.
• The establishment of the Supreme Court led to the emergence of two rival sets of judicial authorities: The Supreme Court, and Sadar Diwani Adalat.
• A temporary solution was found with the appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as President of the Sadar Diwani Adalat.
• In 1790 criminal appeals were transferred to the Governor-General and Council who was assisted by Chief Qazi and two muftis. This was part of the general policy of Cornwallis in replacing Indians by Europeans in all higher posts.
• Cornwallis established District courts under British judges.
• He separated the posts of civil judge and the collector from whom appeals lay to four new appellate courts set up at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna.
• Below the district courts were Registrar’s courts, headed by Europeans and a number of subordinate courts headed by Indian judges known as Munsifs and Amins.
• In 1801 the judicial authority of the Governor General Council came to an end and three judges were appointed to form the Sadar Diwani Adalat or Civil Appellate Court.
• The principle of duality between the courts of the Crown and the Zamindari Courts ended in 1861 when the Indian High Court Act established High Courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in place of the Supreme Court as well as the Sadar Court.
• The important features of the new judicial set up were the rule of law, equality before law, recognition of the right to be judged by his personal law and the growth of the professional and trained judicial hierarchy.
• However, the new judicial system suffered from certain serious weaknesses. In criminal cases the Europeans had separate courts and even laws. They were tried by European judges who at times gave them undue protection.
• In civil matters the situation was quite serious. The courts were situated at distant places. The procedures were long and time consuming. Getting justice was very expensive. Village committees and Panchayats lost importance even in the village matters.

Impact of British Administration

• The benefits of British Administration could be seen in the maintenance of peace and order, belief in liberty and ushering in a process of modernization.
• A common system of law and uniform court of government produced a large measure of unity.
• However, the remote and impersonal nature of administration proved to be both a source of weakness and strength. Its defect was that it produced a lack of sensitiveness to the feelings of the people.
• The British administrative policies resulted in the disappearance of indigenous institutions of local self government and exclusion of Indians from higher ranks of administration.
• The effects of subordination of Indian economy to British interests were many, such as the ruin of artisans and craftsmen, impoverishment of the peasantry, ruin of old zamindars and rise of a class of new landlords, stagnation and deterioration of agriculture.
• The general discontent which began to brew up among the Indians as a consequence of British policies, ultimately led to the outbreak of 1857.

Neglected Tropical Diseases


Neglected Tropical Diseases

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries and affect more than one billion people, costing developing economies billions of dollars every year. They mainly affect populations living in poverty, without adequate sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock.
Some Neglected Tropical Diseases are:
• Dengue: A mosquito-borne infection causing flu-like illness that may develop into severe dengue and cause lethal complications.
• Rabies: A preventable viral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of infected dogs that is invariably fatal once symptoms develop.
• Trachoma: A chlamydial infection transmitted through direct contact with infectious eye or nasal discharge, or through indirect contact with unsafe living conditions and hygiene practices, which left untreated causes irreversible corneal opacities and blindness.
• Buruli ulcer: A debilitating mycobacterial skin infection causing severe destruction of the skin, bone and soft tissue.
• Yaws: A chronic bacterial infection affecting mainly the skin and bone.
• Leprosy: A complex disease caused by infection mainly of the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes.
• Chagas disease: A life-threatening illness transmitted to humans through contact with vector insects (triatomine bugs), ingestion of contaminated food, infected blood transfusions, congenital transmission, organ transplantation or laboratory accidents.
• Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness): A parasitic infection spread by the bites of tsetse flies that is almost 100% fatal without prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent the parasites invading the central nervous system.
• Leishmaniases: Disease transmitted through the bites of infected female sandflies that in its most severe (visceral) form attacks the internal organs and in its most prevalent (cutaneous) form causes face ulcers, disfiguring scars and disability.
• Taeniasis and neurocysticercosis: An infection caused by adult tapeworms in human intestines; cysticercosis results when humans ingest tapeworm eggs that develop as larvae in tissues.
• Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease): A nematode infection transmitted exclusively by drinking-water contaminated with parasite-infected water fleas.
• Echinococcosis: Infection caused by the larval stages of tapeworms forming pathogenic cysts in humans and transmitted when ingesting eggs most commonly shed in faeces of dogs and wild animals.
• Foodborne trematodiases: Infection acquired by consuming fish, vegetables and crustaceans contaminated with larval parasites; clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis are the main diseases.
• Lymphatic filariasis: Infection transmitted by mosquitoes causing abnormal enlargement of limbs and genitals from adult worms inhabiting and reproducing in the lymphatic system.
• Soil-transmitted helminthiases: Nematode infections transmitted through soil contaminated by human faeces causing anaemia, vitamin A deficiency, stunted growth, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction and impaired development.
A report on Neglected Tropical Diseases released by the World Health Organisation has outlined the breathtaking economic cost that developing countries such as India face in coping with diseases such as hookworm infection, lymphatic filariasis and visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar.
Effective control against NTDs can be achieved when several public health approaches are combined. Interventions are therefore guided by local epidemiology and availability of appropriate detection, prevention and control measures that can be delivered locally.

Hydrogen Bomb


Hydrogen Bomb

• Atom bombs release energy by fission, or breaking apart, of heavy atomic nuclei like uranium and plutonium, while A hydrogen bomb releases energy by fusing together light nuclei like tritium or  deuterium, converting even more matter into energy.
• Fusion powers the Sun and stars as hydrogen atoms fuse together to form helium, and matter is converted into energy. Hydrogen, heated to very high temperatures changes from a gas to a plasma in which the negatively-charged electrons are separated from the positively-charged atomic nuclei (ions). Normally, fusion is not possible because the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei prevent them from getting close enough together to collide and for fusion to occur. However, if the conditions are such that the nuclei can overcome the electrostatic forces to the extent that they can come within a very close range of each other, then the attractive nuclear force (which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) between the nuclei will outweigh the repulsive (electrostatic) force, allowing the nuclei to fuse together. Such conditions can occur when the temperature increases, causing the ions to move faster and eventually reach speeds high enough to bring the ions close enough together. The nuclei can then fuse, causing a release of energy.
Basics of Hydrogen Bomb
• First, the stages of the weapon are separated into a triggering, primary explosive and a much more powerful secondary explosive.
• After this, the secondary explosive is compressed by X-rays coming from the nuclear fission of the primary explosive. This process is called the “radiation implosion” of the secondary explosive.
• Finally, the secondary explosive is heated, after cold compression, by a second fission explosion that occurs inside the secondary explosive.
Differences between Hydrogen bomb and Atom bomb.
• A Hydrogen bomb is a much more powerful atomic weapon.
• The energy released in a Hydrogen bomb is several magnitudes higher than an Atom bomb. Hydrogen bombs can devastate whole cities in one explosion.
• A Hydrogen bomb derives its energy through the fusion of atoms. An Atom bomb derives its energy from fission.
• Nuclear fusion and nuclear fission are different types of reactions that release energy. In fission, an atom is split into 2 or more smaller, lighter atoms. Fusion, in contrast, occurs when 2 or more atoms fuse together, creating a larger, heavier atom.
• A fusion bomb is more sophisticated and difficult to make, since it requires a much higher temperature in the order of millions of degrees centigrade. So a fission is carried out first to produce more energy, which is then used to initiate fusion. In a fusion bomb, a fission device has to be triggered first.
• It is easier to make Hydrogen bombs in small size, so it is easier to place them in missiles.
• Hiroshima and Nagasaki both were atomic bombs and till date Hydrogen bombs have never been used in war.
• This is the fourth atomic test by North Korea and first test of fusion bomb.

Cetacean Stranding


Cetacean Stranding

Cetacean stranding is a phenomenon in which cetaceans strand themselves on land, usually on a beach. Beached whales often die due to dehydration, collapsing under their own weight, or drowning when high tide covers the blowhole.
Species susceptible to stranding:
Whales, dolphins and porpoises. Among them toothed whales, sperm whale, pilot and killer whales, few beaked whale species, and oceanic dolphins are most susceptible to stranding.
Causes of Stranding:
Natural Reasons include rough weather, weakness due to old age or infection, difficulty giving birth, hunting too close to shore, or navigation errors. Some standing may be caused by larger cetaceans following dolphins and porpoises into shallow coastal waters. The larger animals may habituate to following faster-moving dolphins. If they encounter an adverse combination of tidal flow and seabed topography, the larger species may become trapped.
Human-related issues including by catch, vessel collisions and environmental degradation. Natural and human-related factors can also interact to cause stranding. Noise from naval exercises and active sonar can cause the stranding.
Theories
1. Most strandings occur on gently sloping beaches. Cetaceans may not be adapted to shallow water and get themselves into shallow water because their sonar may not detect gentle smooth slopes up to shallow areas. Evidence against this theory is that the greater incidence of strandings on sandy beaches may be due to the fact that there are more sandy than rocky beaches in the world and animals are easier to find on sandy beaches. Also, when stranded animals are pushed back out to sea they tend to return to the beach. However, if one persists in pushing them out, they tend to eventually return to sea. There have been no records of mass strandings of Mysticete whales.
2. Parasites in the ears; ova in the brain.
3. Cetaceans may revert to primitive instincts under stress. Under stress, behavior may be dominated by the subcortex, overruling the rational cortex. Strandings are lethally non-adaptive and should have evolved out, however they have remained. Panic may be a factor.
4. Mass strandings may be due to social cohesiveness, where cetaceans follow each other. Evidence against this is the presence of single strandings and the finding of mass strandings spread along an entire beach.

Sai Praveen

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