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Computer Terminology/Super Computer


Computer TerminologySupercomputer and its Applications

Computer Terminology

Adware: It is a software package which automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author.
Android: It is a Linux based operating system designed Primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets computer.
Antivirus Software: Antivirus software consists of 3omputer programs that attempt to identify threat and eliminate computer virus and other malicious software (Malware)
Artificial Intelligence: Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
Bandwidth: The maximum amount of data that can travel in a communication path in a given time, measured in bits per second (bps).
Bar Code: A bar code is a machine-readable representation of information in a visual format on a surface. The first bar code system was developed by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver in 1952.
Blog: It is a discussion or informational site published on the world wide web.
Bluetooth: A protocol that permits a wireless exchange of information between computers. cell phone and other electronic devices within a radius about 30 feet,
Cookie: A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server
Debugging: It is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware, thus making it behave as expected
Dots Per Inch (DPI): It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner or monitor. It refers to the number of dots in a one inch line. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution.
DVD: DVD is an optical disk storage media format that can be used for data storage including movies with high quality video and sound
Encryption: In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that hackers cannot read it, but the authorised users can access it.
Graphic Interchange Format (GIF): A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
JPEG: It is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital photography. The term ‘JPEG’ is an acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Groups.
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP): It is an important protocol used on the world wide web for moving hypertext files across the internet. It requires an HTTP client program on one end and HTTP server program on other end.
Internet: The Internet (also known simply as the net is the worldwide, publicly accessible system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by nacket switching using the standard Internet protocol
Internet Protocol (IP): Address IP addresses are assigned to each and every computer on a TCP/IP network. It ensures that data on a network goes where it is supported to go e.g., 192.168.2.250
Internet Service Provider(ISP): An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services.
LAN: It stands for Local Area Network In a LAN the connected computers are geographically close together. They are either in the same building or within a smaller area.
Piracy: The illegal copying of software or other creative works.
Qwerty: It is one of the standard computer keyboard, with the character Q, W. E, R. T and Y on the top row of letters
Router: A network device that enables the network to reroute messages it receives that are intended for other networks. The network with the router receives the message and sends it on its way exactly as received. In normal operations. They do not store any of the messages that they pass through.
Scanner: An electronic device that uses light-sensing equipment to scan paper images such as text, photos and illustrations and translate the images into signals that the computer can then store, modify, or distribute
Spam: Irrelevant or unsolicited messages sent over Internet, typically to large numbers of users, for the purpose of advertising. Phishing spreading malwares, etc
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The specific internet address for a resource such as an individual or an organization.
Virus: A piece of computer code designed as a prank or malicious act to spread from one computer to another by attaching itself to other programs.
Word Wide Web (‘www or ‘The Web’): A network of servers on the Internet that use hypertext-linked databases and files. It was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and is now the primary platform of the Internet.
ZIP: It stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is an application that allows for the compression of application files.
Virtual Reality: An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.To create this effect, the user needs Hardware devices like goggles, gloves, and earphones etc inbuilt with sensors.It enables people to deal with information more easily. VR provides a different way to see and experience information, one that is dynamic and immediate.


1857 Revolt/Evolution of Education of Press / Administration before 1857


The Revolt of 1857Introduction and Evolution of English Education Press Under British Rule

1857 Revolt

• The revolt of 1857 was though a regional manifestation yet the causes and the events that instigated the revolt were surely having a Pan-Indian characteristic.
• The revolt of 1857 was the outburst of people’s feelings against, social, economic and political exploitation and hence people participated from almost every field, i.e. social, economical (represented by peasants) and political (deposed rulers) in the revolt.
• It was the first major attempt by the Indians to free themselves from the clutches of British Raj, but Anglo-Indian historians have greatly emphasized the importance of military grievances and the greased cartridges affair as the most potent causes which led to the uprising of 1857.
• The greased cartridges and the mutiny of soldiers was merely the match-stick which exploded the inflammable material which had gathered in heap on account of a variety of causes – political, social, religious and economic.
• Prior to this revolt also, the resentment of the Indians were expressed in both violent mutinies as well as peaceful protests.
• The mutiny at Vellore (1806), at Barrackpore (1824), at Ferozpur (1842), mutiny of the 7th Bengal cavalry, mutiny of 22nd N.I. in 1849, Revolt of the Santhals (1855-56), Kol uprising (1831-32) etc. were among the high degree of protests by the people that culminated in the revolt of 1857.
POLITICAL CAUSES
Conquest
• The East India Company created a lot of discontent and disaffection among the dispossessed ruling families and their successors by her conquest.
• A large number of dependents on the ruling families who lost their means of livelihood and other common people were disillusioned and disaffected with the alien rule.
• Lord Dalhousie annexed the Punjab and added humiliation to the ruling family. Dalip Singh, the minor son of Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh Kingdom of the Punjab, was deposed, and exiled to England. The properties of the Lahore Darbar were auctioned.
Doctrine of Lapse
• By applying the Doctrine of Lapse, Dalhousie annexed the principalities of Satara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Bhagat, Udaipur, Jhansi, and Nagpur.
• Doctrine of Lapse manifested the lack of sensitivity of the British towards the ancient right of adoption among the Hindus.
• Lord Dalhousie annexed the kingdom of Oudh in 1856 on the pretext of mismanagement. The dethronement of Wajid Ali Shah sent a wave of resentment and anger of throughout the country.
• The kingdom of Oudh was exploited economically and the Nawabs were reduced to a position of complete dependency on the British. The Nawabs, negligence towards the administration of the state, was used as an excuse by Dalhousie to merge it with the British Empire.
Humiliation of the Mughals
• Since 1803, the Mughal emperors had been living under the British protection. His claims to honour and precedence were recognized.
• The seal of Governors General bore the inscription humble servant.
• Amherst made it clear to the emperor, that his Kingship was nominal; it was merely out of courtesy that he was addressed as King.
• The emperor was forced to give up residence in the Red Fort, and abandon his prerogative of naming his successor.
• The treatment meted out by the governors-general to the Mughal emperor greatly alienated the Muslims who felt that the British wanted to humble their emperor.
Suspension of Pension
• The annual pension of Rani Jindan the Queen of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was reduced from 15,000 pounds to 1,200 pounds.
• The pension to Nana Sahib and of Lakshmi Bai, of Jhansi was suspended.
• The titular sovereignty of the Nawab of Carnatic and Tanjore was also abolished.
ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC CAUSES
Rule of Law
• The British introduced the Rule of Law, which implied the principle of equality in the eyes of the law irrespective of the high and the low, the rich and the poor, the weak and the strong.
• The poorer and the weaker sections did not get any benefit from the new system due to complicated procedure of the British administration.
Unpopular British Administration
• The English officials were not accessible to the people. Thus, the people could not place their grievances before them, as they did during the period of the Mughals.
• The people also disliked the new system of British administration which functioned as a machine and lacked personal touch.
• The English laws were quite strange and the common people could not understand them.
Exclusion of lndians from Administrative Posts
• The British were of the opinion that the Indians were not suitable for the higher posts in their administrative structure. They lacked faith in the sincerity of the Indians.
• Contempt for Indian and racial prejudice were other reasons why the Indians were denied higher positions in the administration.
• Complete exclusion of Indians from all position of trust and power in the administration, and the manning of all higher offices both in the civil government and the military forces by the British brought forth discontent and a sense of humiliation among the people.
ECONOMIC CAUSES
Ruin of the Mercantile Class
• The British deliberately crippled Indian trade and commerce by imposing high tariff duties against Indian goods. On the other hand they encouraged the import of British goods to India. As a result by the middle of the nineteenth century Indian exports of cotton and silk goods practically came to an end.
Destruction of Indian Manufacturers
• The British policy of promoting the import of cotton goods to India from England destructed all Indian manufacturers, in the cotton textile industry.
• When British goods flooded Indian market and threatened the outright destruction of Indian manufacturers, the East India Company’s government that ruled India did not take any step to prevent the tragedy.
• Free trade and refusal to impose protective duties against machine-made goods of England ruined Indian manufacturers.
Pressure on Land
• The millions of ruined artisans and craftsmen, spinners, weavers, smelters, smiths and others from town and villages, had no alternative but to pursue agricultural activity that led to a pressure on land.
• India was transformed from being a country of agriculture into an agricultural colony of British Empire.
Impoverishment of peasantry
• Land being the chief source of income for Indians, the East India Company introduced various experiments and measures to extract the maximum share of agricultural produce.
• Various methods of revenue settlement led to the impoverishment and misery of the peasants.
• Peasants were exploited by moneylenders, who usually confiscated their land for failure to repay their debt.
• English settlers monopolized plantation industries like indigo and tea.
• The inhuman treatment of the indigo cultivators by the European plantation owners was one of the darkest and most tragic episodes in the history of British rule in India.
• The economic policies of the British affected the interests of the Indian traders, the manufacturers, craftsmen and the peasants.
SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CAUSES
Social Legislation
• Lord William Bentinck abolished the practice of Sati in 1829, with the support of educated and enlightened Indians such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
• Lord Canning enacted the Widow Remarriage Act, drafted by Lord Dalhousie in 1856.
• These legislation were viewed by the orthodox sections in the society as interference by the British in their social and religious practice
• The two laws of 1832 and 1850, removing disabilities due to change of religion, particularly conferring the right of inheritance to change of religion, particularly conferring the right of inheritance to Christian converts, were quite unpopular among the Hindus.
Missionary Activities
• There was a strong movement grew in England to spread Christianity in India and convert its Hindus and Muslims subjects to that faith.
• By the Charter Act of 1813, Christian missionaries were permitted to enter the Company’s territories in India to propagate their religion and spread Western education.
• The Christian missionaries took every opportunity to expose the abuses in the Hindu as well as the Islamic religion.
• They denounced idolatry, ridiculed the Hindu gods and goddesses and criticized the philosophy and principals of Hinduism and Islam.
• The teaching of Christian doctrines were made compulsory in educational institutes run by the missionaries.
• Thus, the interference of the British authorities in social customs and practices through social legislation and the encouragement given by the government to Christian missionaries in their proselytizing activities created a sense of apprehension and hatred in the minds of Indians.
MILITARY CAUSES
Service Conditions
• The sepoys of the Bengal army, were Brahmins and Rajputs had special grievances of their own. Among them were unsatisfactory conditions of service, encroachment upon their religious customs, and offences against their dignity and self-respect.
• They had a strong sense of resentment, as their scale of salary was very low compared to their English counterparts.
• In the guise of enforcing discipline, the British authorities prohibited the Hindus and the Muslim sepoys displaying their religious marks.
• The Hindu sepoys were forbidden to wear vermilion mark on their forehead, or turban on their head. The Muslims sepoys were forced to shave off their beard. These restrictions wounded the religious sentiments of the sepoys.
Withdraw of Allowances
• The British authorities used to withdraw the allowances after the conquest and annexation of a province and post the same troops in those very provinces on reduced salaries. These measures demoralized the sepoys.
• In 1844 four Bengal regiments refused to move to Sindh till extra allowance was sanctioned. Mutinous spirit was also displayed in 1849 by the sepoys in various provinces.
The General Service Enlistment Act
• The Hindu soldiers nursed grievances against the British as they were forced to go on expedition to Burma and Afghanistan, which violated their religious beliefs.
• To live among Muslims and to take food and water from them was disliked to their ancient customs.
• Besides, crossing the seas was prohibited by the religion as the one who crossed the forbidden seas was bound to lose his caste.
• In order to prevent any kind of resistance from the sepoys against their deployment abroad, Lord Canning’s government passed the General Service Enlistment Act in 1856.
• By this act all future recruits to the Bengal army were required to give an undertaking that they would serve anywhere their services required.
THE BEGINNING AND SPREAD OF THE MUTINY AND REVOLT
• Above mentioned factors prepared a general ground for discontent and disaffection among different section of the Indian people, which required a mere spark to explode into a conflagration.
• The greased cartridges provided this spark.
• In 1856, the government decided to replace the old fashioned muskets by the Enfield rifles. In order to load the Enfield rifle, the greased wrapping paper of the cartridge had to be bitten off by the soldier.
• In January 1857, a rumor began to spread in the Bengal regiments that the greased cartridges contained the fat of cows and pigs.
• The sepoys became convinced that the introduction of the greased cartridge was a deliberate attempt to defile their religion.
• The cow was sacred to the Hindus, and the pig was a taboo for the Muslims.
• On March 29, 1857, the Indian soldiers at Barrackpore refused to use the greased cartridges and one sepoy, Mangal Pandey, attacked and killed a British officer.
• At Meerut, in May 1857, the sepoys of the 3rd cavalry regiment at Meerut also refused to use the greased cartridges and broke out in open rebellion on 10th May and shot their officer and headed towards Delhi.
• General Hewitt, was then the commanding officer at Meerut.
• On 12 May 1857, the rebels seized Delhi and overcame Lieutenant Willoughby, the incharge of the magazine at Delhi.
• Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed the Emperor of India.
• Very soon the rebellion spread throughout Northern and Central India at Lucknow, Allahabad, Kanpur, Bareilly, Banaras, Jhansi, parts of Bihar and other places.
• Unfortunately, a majority of Indian rulers remained loyal to the British and the educated Indians and merchants class kept themselves aloof from the rebels.
• India, south of the Narmada remained undisturbed.
• At Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, the British resident, was ousted and killed.
• Kanpur was lost to the British on 5th June 1857 and Nana Sahib was proclaimed the Peshwa.
• General Huge Wheeler surrendered on June 27.
• Rani Lakshmi Bai, the widow of late Gangadhar Rao, was proclaimed the ruler of the state after the troops at Jhansi mutinied in June 1857.
• In Bihar a local zamindar, Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur revolted.
CENTERS OF THE REVOLT
• Delhi: A rebellion was led by Bakht Khan. In September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the English in which John Nicholson, the commander was wounded and later died. The emperor was arrested and his two sons and grandsons were publicly shot by Lieutenant Hudson himself.
• Kanpur: Nana Saheb was the leader at Kanpur. General Huge Wheeler surrendered on June 27. Nana Saheb was joined by Tantia Tope. Sir Campbell occupied Kanpur on December 6th. Tantia Tope escaped and joined Rani of Jhansi.
• Lucknow: Rebellion here was led by Begum Hazrat Mahal and Ahmaddullah. Henry Lawrence and other Europeans at the British residency were killed by the rebels. The early attempts of Havelock and Outram to recover Lucknow met with no success. It was finally rescued by Colin Campbell in March 1858.
• Jhansi: Rani Lakshmi Bai led the revolt who was defeated by Huge Rose and she fled to Gwalior and captured it. She was supported by Tantia Tope. Gwalior was recaptured by the English in June 1858 and the Rani of Jhansi died on 17th June. Tantia Tope escaped southward. In April, one of the Sindhia’s feudatory captured him and handed to the English who hanged him.
• Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself the Nawab Nazim of Bareilly, however, the rebellion was crushed by Colin Campbell in May 1858 and Bareilly was recaptured.
• Arah: Kunwar Singh and his brother Amar Singh led the rebellion. They were defeated by William Taylor and Vincent Ayar. Kunwar Singh was killed on 8th May, 1858.
• Faizabad: Maulavi Ahmeddullah led the rebellion but was defeated by the English.
• Allahabad & Banaras: The rebellion at Banaras and adjoining areas was mercilessly suppressed by Colonel Neill who put to death all rebels suspected and even disorderly boys.
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF THE REVOLT
• The revolt of 1857 was poorly organized, restricted in its scope and there was lack of unity among the rebel leaders. There was no impact of the rebellion in the South. Even in North India, Rajasthan, the Punjab, Sind, Sindhia’s dominion of Gwalior, etc. remained quite.
• The leaders of the rebellion did not have any common ideals and were ‘wrapped up’ in their own individual grievances. The only common bond of unit among them was their anti-British sympathies.
• The resources of the British Empire were far superior to those of the rebels who were poorly organized and lacked resources.
• The Indian princes such as the Schindhia, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Gaekwad of Vadodara and the Princes of Rajasthan remained loyal to the British.
• Educated Indians were repelled by the rebels due to their appeals to superstitions and their opposition to progressive social measures and were mistaken to take Britishers as their helpers in accomplishing the task of modernization.
IMPACT OF THE REVOLT
• The control of Indian administration was transferred from the East India Company to the crown by the Government of India Act, 1858.
• It ended the era of annexation and expansion and the Queen’s proclamation declared against any desire for “extension of territorial possessions” and promised to respect the rights of dignity and honour of native princes as their own.
• The Act of 1858 ended the dualism in the control of Indian affairs and made the crown directly responsible for management of Indian affairs. Following this, fundamental changes in the administrative set up were made in the executive, legislative and judicial administration of India by passing the Indian Councils Act of 1861, the Indian High Court Act of 1861 and the Indian Civil Service Act of 1861.
• The British policies towards Indian States changed radically and the states were now treated as the bulwark of the empire against future contingencies.
• The Indian army was thoroughly reorganized and the number of European troops in India was increased. All the superior posts in the armed forces were reserved for the Europeans.
• The policy of associating Indian members with legislative matters and administration was started. A humble beginning in this direction was made by the Indian Councils Act of 1861.
• The revolt left a legacy of racial bitterness. The entire Indian people were dubbed as unworthy of trust and subjected to insults, humiliations and contemptuous treatment.
• The era of territorial expansion gave place to the era of economic exploitation in a more subtle way. The policy of ‘divide and rule’ between Hindus and Muslims was started.
• The attitude of the British towards social reforms contrary to what it was before 1857. They now sided with orthodox opinion and stopped encouraging social reformers.
NATURE OF THE REVOLT
• Historians are of different opinions regarding the nature of the Revolt of 1857.
• British historians interpreted the revolt as a mutiny of the sepoys.
• Ignoring the grievances of the local people and their participation in the movement, the British historians felt that the rebellion was engineered by the sepoys, and some landholders and princes having vested interest.
• Recent researches on 1857 however argue that self-interested motives did not have much significance before the combined opposition to the unpopular British regime.
• Some historians view the Revolt of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence.
• Those who don’t agree with this interpretation argue that the rebel leaders did not make an attempt to establish a new social order. They tried to restore the old Mughal rule by inviting Bahadur Shah II.
• It is said that “Although Indian initiatives and priorities were so central in the experience of change there was no national revolt in 1857. The discontented were fractured in loyalty and intention, often looking back to a society and a policy which were no longer viable”. Thus, it was not revolution but just a restoration.
• Recent studies on the Revolt of 1857, however, focus on the popular participation in the revolt.
• Besides the sepoys and Taluqdars, rural peasantry participated in large numbers in the revolt. In the case of Awadh, it has been shown that taluqdars and peasants jointly launched the attack.
• Even in many places when taluqdars made peace with the British, peasants continued their movement.
• The sepoys had linkage with their kinsmen in the villages and the revolt of the sepoys influenced the civilian population to ventilate their grievances against the British rule. Thus the Revolt of 1857 took the character of a popular uprising.
Historians on the Nature of the Revolt.
Sir J. Lawrence and J. Seeley 1857 was a mutiny led by selfish army
Ler Rees War of fanatic religionalists against Christians.
J.G. Medley A war between blacks and black supported whites.
T.R. Helmes Conflict between civilization and barbarism.
J. Outram and W. Taylor A Hindu-Muslim conspiracy.
S.N. Sen Inherited in the constitution of British Rule.
Disraeli A national revolt
V.D. Savarkar First War of Indian Independence
V. Smith Discontent and unrest widespreadly prevalent.
Participants to the Revolt
Ahmadullah An Adviser of the ex-king of Avadh, Faizabad
Nana Saheb Kanpur
Rani Jhansi Jhansi
Kunwar Singh Jagdishpur (Bihar)
Mangal Pande Barrackpore
Hazrat Mahal Lucknow
Tantia Tope Gwalior
Hakim Ahsanullah Chief Adviser to Bahadur Shah during 1857
Firuz Shah Relative of Bahadur Shah
Henry Lawrence Chief Commissioner of Avadh died
Maj. Gen. Havelock Defeated Tantia Tope at Bithnur
John Lawrence Suppressed revolt in Punjab
Major Hudson Beheaded Bahadur Shah’s son.
Maj. Gen. Wyndham Defeated by Tantia Tope near Kanpur
Calen Campbell Reoccupied Lucknow in March, 1858
Hugh Rose Defeated Rani Jhansi
General Neil Died at Lucknow

TRI-NETRA: Railway Safety System


TRI-NETRA: Railway Safety System

During fog, heavy rain and also during night, the locomotive pilots face serious challenges in looking out ahead to spot any obstruction on the track such as vehicles which get stuck while crossing the track or trees or boulders which have fallen across the track etc.
Thus to address this issue Railway has initiated proposal to install TRI-NETRA.
TRI-NETRA stands for Terrain imaging for diesel dRiversINfra red, Enhanced  opTical  &  Radar  Assisted system.
TRI-NETRA system is made up of high-resolution optical video camera, high sensitivity infrared video camera and additionally a radar-based terrain mapping system.
Proposed benefits:
a) TRI-NETRA will give the locomotive pilot a clear view of the track ahead in bad visibility conditions so that he can apply brakes well in time.
b) It will enable the Locomotive Pilot to “see” objects from upto one kilometer away on straight track during inclement weather.

Encryption Policy


Encryption Policy

Defining Encryption:
“Encryption” – a component of cryptography refers to encoding of information such thatonly authorized parties can read it.  The intended communication information, as in the process, being referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, to generate what is calledcipher text that can only be read if decrypted. The algorithm used produces a pseudo-random encryption key. The authorized recipient can easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients, but not to unauthorized interceptors.:
The process was originally used for the protection of military, diplomatic and other crucial government information. Due to recent developments in ICT, growing use of online apps for communication expanded the scope of encryption to e-commerce and e-governance civilian applications. Subsequently, there emerged the need to protect privacy and increase the security of the Internet and associated information systems and develop policies that favour the spread of encryption worldwide.
Encryption can be used to protect both data “at rest”, such as information stored on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives) as well as data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. Data should also be encrypted when transmitted across networks in order to protect against eavesdropping of network traffic by unauthorized users.
Encryption along with other techniques can protect the confidentiality of messages.
WhatsApp, Google Hangouts, Skype, Apple iMessage, Telegram, Viber, Line and BlackBerry Messenger use encryption to convert the chats to some undecipherable code that can be only decrypted by the recipient. They store encrypted imessage chats on its servers before the messages are delivered but it cannot unscramble these. Some services keep this key on their own servers but most are moving to end-to-end encryption. There is a backlash from surveillance agencies who want access to decryption keys for security reasons.
The Draft of the Encryption Policy:
• The Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Ministry of communications and Information Technology, Government of India had put up a draft National Encryption Policy document online seeking to prescribe the methods of encryption of data and communications used by the government, businesses, and even citizens. The document says that the policy’s mission is to “provide confidentiality of information in cyberspace for individuals, protection of sensitive or proprietary information for individuals & businesses, ensuring continuing reliability and integrity of nationally critical information systems and networks.
• The draft policy was introduced under Section 84 A of the Information Technology Act (2000). Once finalized, it aimed to introduce rules for encryption of electronic information and communication.
• The policy will be applicable on everyone: government departments, academic institutions, citizens and for all kinds of communications — official or personal
The Criticisms of the Policy:
The policy document triggered widespread privacy concerns and generated a heated debate:
• According to the draft, users and organizations would “on demand” need to store all communication in plain text for 90 days from the date of transaction and make it available to law enforcement agencies in line with the provisions of the laws of the country. As many users in India do not know the meaning of plain text and in such a case they can be held liable for not storing their encrypted data in plain text format.
• In case of communication with any foreign entity, the primary responsibility of providing readable plaintext along with the corresponding encrypted information shall rest on the business or citizen located in India. Additionally, service providers located within and outside India, using encryption technology for providing any type of services in India, must enter into an agreement with the government. The provision is totally illogical and ambiguous.
• The policy presents a totalitarian strategy in name of protecting data in a democratic regime.
• It also raises the issue of privacy.

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)


Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

Introduction
• UCG is an in-situ gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface.
• The predominant product gases are methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
• The technique can be applied to coal resources that are otherwise unprofitable or technically complicated to extract by traditional mining methods.
• UCG offers an alternative to conventional coal mining methods for some resources.
• Compared to traditional coal mining and processing, the underground coal gasification eliminates surface damage and solid waste discharge, and reduces sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
• UCG has the potential to exploit the coal resources regarded as either uneconomic to work by conventional underground coal extraction or in-accessible due to depth, geology or other mining and safety considerations.
• This is one of the identified Clean Coal Technologies.
Methods
• The UCG technology uses a variety of modern drilling methods, including high-precision directional holes, as well as conventional vertical and inclined (or angled) holes.
• In its arsenal are various methods of well-linking, the capability to inject different oxidants (air, enriched air, O2/H2O, CO2/O2 and so on), and a great variety of designs of underground gasifiers.
• It can be applied to coal in a wide range of geological conditions
Basic Process
• The basic UCG process involves drilling tube wells into coal; one for injection of the oxidants (water/air or water/oxygen) and other well some distance away to bring the product gas to the surface.
• The product gas is a combustible Syngas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane that can be used as a fuel or chemical feedstock.
• A cavity is formed as the coal burns and the roof is allowed to collapse. Eventually a stage is reached when gasification efficiency declines and a new gasifier must be initiated.
The principal UCG processes can be divided into two stages:
A. Pyrolysis: During pyrolysis coal is converted to char which releases tars, oils, low molecular hydro carbons and other gases.
B. Gasification occurs when water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen react with the char.
The main gases produced are carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Methane is a product of pyrolysis and its formation is favoured by low temperature and high pressure.
Economic Benefits of UCG:
• No need to transport the coal.
• No need for disposing of ash or slag.
• No need for an above ground gasification plant.
• No need to prepare the coal to be fed into a reactor.
• No need for coal handling.
• No need for the coal to be mined.
• Significantly lower capital cost for project development than that of above ground plants.
Environmental Benefits of UCG:
• No environmental impacts traditionally associated with coal mining and handling.
• All or a substantial portion of the sulfur, mercury, arsenic, tar, ash and particulates found in coal remain underground.
• Underground saline water is used.
• Significantly reduced use of groundwater or freshwater.
• No landfill disposal required for ash or slag.
• Coal seams being gasified are below the fresh drinking water supplies.
• Minimal land use.
• Significantly reduced criteria air pollutants.
• Any sulfur or metals that reach the surface do so in a chemically reduced state, making them easier to remove
UCG Policy Framework:
• The UCG policy framework has been framed in line with the existing policy for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) development on revenue sharing basis.
• Development of UCG has been envisaged to provide for energy security and will be adopted for offering the blocks through competitive bidding.
• Inter-Ministerial Committee under the Union Ministry of Coal with members from concerned Ministries will be responsible for identification of the areas.
• Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDIL) will be the nodal agency for all business related proposals and regulations.

Sai Praveen

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