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Nano & its Applications/ Govt. Initiative

Nanotechnology and its ApplicationsNanotechnology Initiatives

Nano & its Applications

Nanotechnology is the study of matter at a miniature level called the nano scale. A nano meter is equal to one billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology facilitates research on particles less than one billionth of a meter in diameter, and thus paves way to some amazing inventions and discoveries. The properties of atoms and molecules are found to greatly differ on a nano scale, i.e., at 100 nm or below compared to what they are in bulk matter. Exploiting this feature of matter, nanotechnology manipulates single atoms to discover new properties and then uses these to create improved materials, devices and systems.
Today, from agriculture to aerospace research, nanotechnology’s impact is being felt. Research in nanotechnology spans across an array of fields such as health, environment, agriculture, food and beverages, product development, space technology, power generation, genetics, biotechnology, forensic science, electronics and communications.
Application of Nanotechnology
A. Nano Medicine
Nano medicine is the medical application of Nano technology. Nano medicine ranges from medical application of Nano materials and biological devices to nano electronic bio sensors and future biological machines.
Advantage of nano in biological application: The size of nano materials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nano-materials can be useful for both in vivo(inside the body) and in vitro(outside body) biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nano materials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.
1. Drug Delivery: Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles (increases effectiveness, less side effects)
2. Tissue Engineering: Tissue engineering is the new emerging field of science which makes use of nanotechnology to repair the damaged tissues. The cells can be artificially reproduced by using suitable nanomaterials scaffolds and other growth factors.
3. Diagnostic: The use of nanomaterials to diagnose different diseases is the most important achievement of medical field. Nanoparticles are attached to the antibody or they can be attached to the molecules to label or to see the structures of proteins in any organism.
4. Sensing: Lab-on-chip technology, where magnetic nano particles bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample.
Nanotechnology offers some exciting potential benefits for the quality and safety of our foods.
• Contamination Sensor: Flash a light to reveal the presence of E. coli bacteria.
• Antimicrobial Packaging: Edible food films made with cinnamon or oregano oil, or nano particles of zinc, calcium other materials that kill bacteria.
• Improved Food Storage: Nano-enhanced barrier keeps oxygen-sensitive foods fresher.
• Enhanced Nutrient Delivery: Nano-encapsulating improves solubility of vitamins, antioxidants, healthy omega oils and other ‘nutraceuticals’.
• Green Packaging: Nano-fibers made from lobster shells or organic corn are both antimicrobial and biodegradable.
• Pesticide Reduction: A cloth saturated with nano fibers slowly releases pesticides, eliminating need for additional spraying and reducing chemical leakage into the water supply.
• Tracking, Tracing; Brand Protection: Nanobarcodes can be created to tag individual products and trace outbreaks.
• Texture: Food spreadability and stability improve with nano-sized crystals and lipids for better low-fat foods.
• Flavor: Trick the tongue with bitter blockers or sweet and salty enhancers.
• Bacteria Identification and Elimination: Nano carbohydrate particles bind with bacteria so they can be detected and eliminated.
• The computer industry is already working on a nanoscale.
• Trend is emerging of the convergence between IT, nanotechnology, biotechnology and cognitive sciences.
Nanotechnology improve the capabilities of electronic components as given below-
• By reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits.
• Researchers are developing a type of memory chip with a projected density of one terabyte of memory per square inch and this increases the density of memory chips.
• By improving display screens on electronics devices and this reduces power consumption and also the weight and thickness of the screens.
• By traditional scaling limits in standard CMOS technology. This development of nano electronic components are called as ‘Beyond CMOS’ domain of development.
Energy Production:
• The devices using Nano electronics technology also includes solar cells that are highly efficient and cheaper than the conventional ones. If such efficient solar energy can be created it would be a revolution to the global energy needs.
• Using the technology, researchers are developing a generator for energy production in vivo called bio-nano generators. Basically, the generator is an electrochemical device which is designed in nanoscale size. It works like a fuel cell which generates the power by absorbing the blood glucose in a living body. The glucose will be separated from the body with the help of an enzyme. This enzyme separates the glucose from the electrons and makes them useful for generating power.
Nano Fabrication:
• Single electron transistors, nano electromechanical systems, ultra dense parallel line of nano wires
The textile industry could be affected quite significantly by nanotechnology, with some estimates talking of a market impact of hundreds of billions of dollars over the next decade. Nanoscience has already produced stain- and wrinkle-resistant clothing, and future developments will focus on upgrading existing functions and performances of textile materials; and developing “smart” textiles with unprecedented functions.
a. Carbon Nanofibers and Carbon Nanoparticles
b. Clay Nanoparticles
• Prototype solar panels incorporating nanotechnology are more efficient than standard designs in converting sunlight to electricity, promising inexpensive solar power in the future. Nanostructured solar cells already are cheaper to manufacture and easier to install, since they can use print-like manufacturing processes and can be made in flexible rolls rather than discrete panels. Newer research suggests that future solar converters might even be “paintable.”
• Nanotechnology is improving the efficiency of fuel production from normal and low-grade raw petroleum materials through better catalysis, as well as fuel consumption efficiency in vehicles and power plants through higher-efficiency combustion and decreased friction.
• Nano-bioengineering of enzymes is aiming to enable conversion of cellulose into ethanol for fuel, from wood chips, corn stalks (not just the kernels, as today), unfertilized perennial grasses, etc.
• Nanotechnology is already being used in numerous new kinds of batteries that are less flammable, quicker-charging, more efficient, lighter weight, and that have a higher power density and hold electrical charge longer. One new lithium-ion battery type uses a common, nontoxic virus in an environmentally benign production process.
• Nanostructured materials are being pursued to greatly improve hydrogen membrane and storage materials and the catalysts needed to realize fuel cells for alternative transportation technologies at reduced cost. Researchers are also working to develop a safe, lightweight hydrogen fuel tank.
• Energy efficiency products are increasing in number and kinds of application. In addition to those noted above, they include more efficient lighting systems for vastly reduced energy consumption for illumination; lighter and stronger vehicle chassis materials for the transportation sector; lower energy consumption in advanced electronics; low-friction nano-engineered lubricants for all kinds of higher-efficiency machine gears, pumps, and fans; light-responsive smart coatings for glass to complement alternative heating/cooling schemes; and high-light-intensity, fast-recharging lanterns for emergency crews.
• Besides lighter cars and machinery that requires less fuel, and alternative fuel and energy sources, there are many eco-friendly applications for nanotechnology, such as materials that provide clean water from polluted water sources in both large-scale and portable applications, and ones that detect and clean up environmental contaminants.
• Nanotechnology could help meet the need for affordable, clean drinking water through rapid, low-cost detection of impurities in and filtration and purification of water.
• Nanoparticles can be used to clean industrial water pollutants in ground water through chemical reactions that render them harmless, at much lower cost than methods that require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment.
• Researchers have developed a nanofabric “paper towel,” woven from tiny wires of potassium manganese oxide, that can absorb 20 times its weight in oil for cleanup applications.
• Many Airplane cabin and other types of air filters are nanotechnology-based filters that allow “mechanical filtration,” in which the fiber material creates nanoscale pores that trap particles larger than the size of the pores. They also may contain charcoal layers that remove odors.
• New nanotechnology-enabled sensors and solutions can be able to detect, identify, and filter out, and/or neutralize harmful chemical or biological agents in the air and soil with much higher sensitivity than is possible today.
• In addition to contributing to building and maintaining lighter, smarter, more efficient, and “greener” vehicles, aircraft, and ships, nanotechnology offers various means to improve the transportation infrastructure:
• Nano-engineering of steel, concrete, asphalt, and other cementitious materials, and their recycled forms, offers great promise in terms of improving the performance, resiliency, and longevity of highway and transportation infrastructure components while reducing their cost. New systems may incorporate innovative capabilities into traditional infrastructure materials, such as the ability to generate or transmit energy.
• Nanoscale sensors and devices may provide cost-effective continuous structural monitoring of the condition and performance of bridges, tunnels, rails, parking structures, and pavements over time. Nanoscale sensors and devices may also support an enhanced transportation infrastructure that can communicate with vehicle-based systems to help drivers maintain lane position, avoid collisions, adjust travel routes to circumnavigate congestion, and other such activities.
• Employing materials made from carbon nanotubes to reduce the weight of spaceships like the one shown below while retaining or even increasing the structural strength.
• Using carbon nanotubes to make the cable needed for the space elevator, a system which could significantly reduce the cost of sending material into orbit.
• Including layers of bio-nano robots in spacesuits.
• Producing thrusters for spacecraft that use MEMS devices to accelerate nanoparticles.
• Using carbon nanotubes to build lightweight solar sails that use the pressure of light from the sun reflecting on the mirror-like solar cell to propel a spacecraft. This solves the problem of having to lift enough fuel into orbit to power spacecraft during interplanetary missions.
• Working with nanosensors to monitor the levels of trace chemicals in spacecraft to monitor the performance of life support systems.
Nanotechnology for Crop Biotechnology
• Nanoparticles can serve as ‘magic bullets’, containing herbicides, chemicals, or genes, which target particular plant parts to release their content. Nanocapsules can enable effective penetration of herbicides through cuticles and tissues, allowing slow and constant release of the active substances.
Nanotech Delivery Systems for Pests, Nutrients, and Plant Hormones
• Nano-sensors and nano-based smart delivery systems could help in the efficient use of agricultural natural resources like water, nutrients and chemicals through precision farming. Through the use of nanomaterials and global positioning systems with satellite imaging of fields, farm managers could remotely detect crop pests or evidence of stress such as drought. Once pest or drought is detected, there would be automatic adjustment of pesticide applications or irrigation levels.
• Nano-sensors dispersed in the field can also detect the presence of plant viruses and the level of soil nutrients. Nano-encapsulated slow release fertilizers have also become a trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution.
• Nano-barcodes and nano-processing could also be used to monitor the quality of agricultural produce. Scientists at Cornell University used the concept of grocery barcodes for cheap, efficient, rapid and easy decoding and detection of diseases.
• They produced microscopic probes or nano-barcodes that could tag multiple pathogens in a farm which can easily be detected using any fluorescent-based equipment. This on-going project generally aims to develop a portable on-site detector which can be used by non-trained individuals.
• Through nanotechnology, scientists are able to study plant’s regulation of hormones such as auxin, which is responsible for root growth and seedling establishment.

Terrorist and Revolutionary Movements

Revolutionary Nationalism

Terrorist and Revolutionary Movements

• In the first half of the 20th century, revolutionary groups sprang up mainly in Bengal, Maharashtra, and Punjab.
• The revolutionaries were not satisfied with the methods of both the moderates and extremists. Hence, they started many revolutionary secret organizations.
Vasudeo Balwant Phadke
• Phadke was influenced by the vision of Justice Ranade.
• He held the British government to be responsible for the sufferings of the people during the famine in the Deccan in 1876-77.
• Phadke denounced the British policy of ruthless exploitation of India.
• The government ordered the army to suppress the uprising.
• Avoiding pitched battle; Phadke recognized his force &started guerilla warfare against the British.
• He was ultimately captured and was sentenced to transportation for life. He was deported to Aden where he died in 1883 in jail.
The Chapekar Brothers, Damodar, Vasudev and Balkrishan
• They established the Hindu Dharma Sanrakshini Sabha in 1894.
• During the Ganapati festivals of 1894, they circulated leaflets in Poona, and asked the Hindus to rise in arms against that rule as Shivaji had done against the Muslim rule.
• On 22 June 1897, W.C. Rand & Lieutenant C.E. Ayearst were shot dead by Damodar & Bal Krishna Chapekar.
• Damodar was arrested immediately after and was sentence to death.
• Bal Krishna was later arrested in Hyderabad and sentenced to death.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
• Savarkar joined the Abhinav Bharat Society founded by his elder brother Ganesh Damodar.
• At the time of his departure from India, Savarkar and his brother were also leaders of an association known as the Mitramela, started around 1899.
• Savarkar later proceeded to London in 1906, but his organization continued to flourish in India.
• The revolutionary activity in Bengal was the outcome of the failure of constitutional agitation to prevent the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Anushilan Samiti
• The first revolutionary organization in Bengal was the Anushilan samiti.
• The Anushilan Samiti was established by Pramathanath Mitra, a barrister from Calcutta.
• The people associated with this samiti were Sri Aurobindo, Deshabandhu Chittaranjan Das, Surendranath Tagore, Jatindranath Banerjee, Bagha Jatin, Bhupendra Natha Datta, Barindra Ghosh etc. Bhupendra Nath Datta was brother of Swami Vivekananda.
• Barindra Ghosh was sent to Paris to learn the science of Bomb Making and here he came in touch were Madam Bhikaji Cama.
• Madam Cama was already associated with the India House and the Paris India Society.
• Its members Kudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were entrusted with the task of assassination of Kingsford the vindictive judge who had sentenced many political prisoners to heavy terms of punishment.
• On 30th April 1908, they threw a bomb at the carriage in which they believed Kingsford to be travelling. But unfortunately, two British ladies who were in the carriage were inadvertently killed. Kudiram was arrested and hanged on 11th August 1908.
• They published a periodical named Jugantar, which openly preached armed rebellion in order to create the necessary revolutionary mentality among the people. Both Sandhya and Jugantar openly preached the cult of violence.
The Alipore Conspiracy
• The government’s search for illegal arms in Calcutta led to the arrest of thirty-four persons including the Ghosh brothers and their trial came to be known as Alipore conspiracy case.
• One of the arrested persons Narendra Gosain became the approver, but he was shot dead in jail before giving evidence.
• Of the accused in the Alipore conspiracy case, fifteen were found guilty and some of them including Barindrakumar Ghosh were transported to life.
• After the Alipore conspiracy case, Rash Behari Bose planned a nationwide-armed uprising with the help of Indian soldiers of the British army. However following the discovery of the plot by the police, Rash Behari Bose escaped to Japan & continued his revolutionary activities there.
• After the First World War, the British government, released some of the revolutionaries to create a more harmonious atmosphere.
• On the plea of Gandhiji, C.R. Das and other leaders, most of the revolutionary nationalists either joined the Indian national movement or suspended their own activities.
• The non-cooperation movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi was suddenly suspended following the mob violence at Chauri chaura in U.P.
• Many young people began to question the very basic strategy of the national leadership & its emphasis on non-violence and began to look for alternatives. Some of them were convinced with the idea that violent methods alone would free India.
• Gradually two separate groups of revolutionary nationalism developed one in Punjab, U.P., and Bihar and the other in Bengal.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
• Hindustan Socialist Republican Association before 1928 was known as the Hindustan Republican Association.
• Bhagat Singh, Yogendra Shukla and Chandrasekar Azad were the key functionaries of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
• The group is also considered one of the first socialist organizations in India.
• HSRA was rejuvenated by the ideologies of the Bolsheviks involvement in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
• Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was first launched during a meeting in Bholachang village, Brahamabaria subdivision of East Bengal. Freedom fighters like Pratul Ganguly, Narendra Mohan Sen and Sachindra Nath Sanyal were present at the meeting.
• The association was formed as an outgrowth of the Anushilan Samiti.
• The name Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was implicative after a similar revolutionary body in Ireland.
• Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was always in the forefront of revolutionary movements in the northern parts of India.
• The association consisted of younger generations of U.P, Bihar, Punjab, Bengal and Maharashtra.
• The group possessed ideals, which were directly opposite to Mahatma Gandhi’s Congress.
The Kakori Conspiracy Case
• The revolutionaries under Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterji, and Sachindranath Sanyal met in Kanpur in October 1924 and founded the Hindustan Republic Association.
• Its aim was to over throw the British rule from India. For all these activities, money was required.
• To achieve this objective the Hindustan Revolutionary Army stopped the down train at Kakori, a village in Lucknow district on 9th August 1925 and looted the railway cash.
• The government arrested large number of young men and tried them in the Kakori conspiracy case.
• The chief leaders of the robbery, Ashfaqulla Khan, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshanlal were sentenced to death.
• HSRA in non-violent protest advancement against the Simon Commission at Lahore decided to support Lala Lajpat Rai.
• But in the protest procession, the police plunged into a mass lathi charge and the wounds imposed on Lalaji proved life-threatening to him.
• To avenge the death of Lajpat Rai; Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Chander Shekhar Azad, and Jai Gopal were given the charge to assassinate J.A. Scott, who had ordered the unlawful lathi-charge but unfortunately a British official J. P. Saunders, got killed in confusion.
• The association adjudicated to burst a blank bomb in the Central Assembly in Delhi, in order to express opposition against the tyrannical legislation and arouse public opinion.
• The ideology behind the bombing was ‘to make the deaf government hear the voices of its oppressed people’.
• Bhagat Singh also believed that ‘the only way to successfully convey his message to the public of India was to propaganda from Court.
• On April 8th 1929 a bomb was detonated near the empty treasure benches, followed by another bomb explosion in the Central Assembly.
• Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt carried out the bombing and got arrested.
• After the Assembly Bomb Case trial on 23rd March 1931 Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged.
• Baikuntha Shukla was also hanged for murdering Phanindrananth Ghosh who had become a government approver which later on led to the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.
• Another key revolutionary of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Chandrasekar Azad was killed on 27th February 1931 in a gunfight with the police.
Trial and execution of Bhagat Singh
• Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were tried in the Assembly Bomb Case.
• While in Delhi jail, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar demanded that they be treated not as criminals, but as political prisoners.
• Jatindranath Das, who went on fast on similar grounds, died on 13th of September 1930, on the sixty- fourth day of the fast in the Lahore prison.
• The trail and subsequent execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru on 23rd March 1931 become a political issue.
• A resolution was passed by the Karachi session of the congress in1931 commending their brave contribution to the freedom struggle of India.
Surya Sen
• In the later part of 1920’s, the most active & famous of the Bengal revolutionary groups was the Chittagong Group led by Surya Sen.
• He had actively participated in the non-cooperation movement and had become a teacher in a national school in Chittagong.
• A group led by Surya Sen captured the government armory on 18th April 1930, and for a while took control over Chittagong and proclaimed a provisional revolutionary government. However, it was not possible for this small group of revolutionaries to put up resistance against the army.
• They escaped to the Chittagong hills and continued to wage guerilla warfare for another three years.
• They were not successful in politically activating the masses.
• Their contact with masses was lacking.
Shyamji Krishnavarma
• He was a member of Mitramela Abhinav Bharat revolutionary group.
• He left Bombay in 1897 and went to London.
• He started a monthly journal, the Indian sociologist; an organ of freedom struggle of India in 1905.
• Shyamji established the Indian Home Rule society and a hostel for Indian students living in London, popularly known as the Indian House.
• The most important revolutionaries associated with him were V.D. Savarkar, Madanlal Dhingra, Madame Cama, and Lala Hardyal.
• In 1907 Shyamji shifted his head quarters to Paris and Savarkar took up the political leadership of the Indian House in London.
Madanlal Dhingra
• In 1909 Madanlal Dhingra, an associate of Savarkar assassinated Curzon-Wylie an the Secretary of State for India. He was spying on Indian students.
• Madanlal Dhingra was arrested and brought to trial, and was hanged on 1st August1909.
Madame Cama
• Madame Cama had been popularly described as the Mother of Indian Revoluation. She left India in 1902.
• She took active part in editing the Indian sociologist and represented India at the Stuttgart conference of socialists in 1907.
• At the confrence, Madame Cama unfurled for the first time Indian national flag on the foreign soil.
• Due to her anti-British activities, she was forced to shift her residence from London to Paris.
• After thirty years of patriotic service in London, Paris and other cities of Europe, her friends succeeded in repatriating her to India in November 1936. She died on 12thAugust 1937.
The Indian Independence Committee in Berlin
• After the outbreak of the First World War, Hardyal and other Indians abroad moved to Germany and set up the Indian independence committee at Berlin.
• The committee planned to bring about a general insurrection in India and for this purpose foreign arms were to be sent to India from abroad; expatriated Indians were to return to mother country, where they were to be joined by Indian soldiers and by the waiting revolutionaries.
• The policy and activities of the Berlin committee and the Ghadar party had greatly influenced the revolutionaries of Bengal.

Zonal Cultural Centres

Zonal Cultural Centres

Zonal Cultural Centres have been conceptualised with the aim of projecting cultural kinship which transcend territorial boundaries. The idea is to arouse awareness of the local cultures and to show how these merge into zonal identities and eventually into the rich diversity of India’s composite culture.
The Seven ZCCs with Headquarters and States, they cover are as follows:

The main objectives of the ZCCs are the preservation, promotion and dissemination of the traditional folk arts and culture of the various States/Union Territories. The ZCCs have been carrying out various activities and programmes at the national, zonal and local levels in accordance with their aims and objectives implemented through various schemes.
They have been implementing the following schemes to preserve and promote traditional art and culture:
These are: National Cultural Exchange Programme; Guru Shishya Parampara Scheme; Young Talented Artistes Scheme; Documentation of Vanishing Art Forms; Theatre Rejuvenation Scheme; Shilpagram Activities and Loktarang – National Folk Dance Festival and Octave.
The Government organizes various cultural programmes through its organizations like Zonal Culture Centres (ZCCs), Akademies etc. to promote Indian culture for all walks of people including youth. The various social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, You Tube and Mobile Apps are being used for providing regular updates about the cultural programmes/events being organized by various organizations.

Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

• The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) is a NASA unmanned space mission to study the Earth’s magnetosphere.
• It is a constellation of 4 spacecraft that packs several new, game-changing capabilities to unlock the secrets of magnetic reconnection at an unprecedented level of detail.
• It is designed to gather information about the microphysics of magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration, and turbulence, processes that occur in many astrophysical plasmas.
• Magnetic reconnection occurs where the Sun and the Earth’s magnetic fields”connect” with each other from opposite directions, resulting in the two canceling each other and the explosive conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the two fields into kinetic energy.
• Reconnection limits the performance of fusion reactors and is the final governor of geospace weather that affects modern technological systems such as telecommunications networks, GPS navigation, and electrical power grids. Four identically instrumented spacecraft measure plasmas, fields, and particles in a near-equatorial orbit that will frequently encounter reconnection in action.

Science Goals:
• MMS reveals, for the first time, the small-scale three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the elusively thin and fast-moving electron diffusion region.
• It does this in both of the key reconnection regions near Earth, where the most energetic events originate.
Mission Objective:
• By observing magnetic reconnection in nature, MMS provides access to predictive knowledge of a universal process that is the final governor of space weather, affecting modern technological systems such as communications networks, GPS navigation, and electrical power grids.
• MMS will establish knowledge, methods and technologies applicable to future space weather missions and the future growth and development of space weather forecasting.
• The four identically instrumented MMS spacecraft fly in an adjustable pyramid-like formation that enables them to observe the three-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection. This enables them to determine whether reconnection occur in an isolated locale, everywhere within a larger region at once, or traveling across space.
• MMS sensors will measure charged particle velocities, as well as electric and magnetic fields, with unprecedented (milliseconds) time resolution and accuracy needed to capture the elusively thin and fast-moving electron diffusion region. MMS probes reconnection of solar and terrestrial magnetic fields in the dayside and nightside of Earth’s magnetosphere, the only natural laboratory where it can be directly observed by spacecraft.
• These satellites operate in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth and incorporate GPS measurements into their precise tracking systems.
• When these satellites are closest to Earth, they move at up to 35,405 km/hour, making them the fastest known operational use of a GPS receiver.
• This system which require extremely sensitive position and orbit calculations to guide tight flying formations.
• Earlier in 2016, MMS had achieved the closest flying separation of a multi-spacecraft formation with only 7.2 km between the four satellites.
• It has set the Guinness world record for highest altitude fix of a GPS signal at 70,000 kilometres above the surface of the Earth. Operating in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth, the four MMS spacecraft incorporate Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements into their precise tracking systems, which require extremely sensitive position and orbit calculations to guide tight flying formations.

Super Moon

Super Moon

A super moon is the coincidence of a full moon or a new moon with the closest approach the Moon makes to the Earth on its elliptical orbit, resulting in the largest apparent size of the lunar disk as seen from Earth. The technical name is the ‘perigee-syzygy’ of the Earth–Moon–Sun system. The term super moon doesn’t come from astronomy. It comes from astrology, and the definition is pretty generous so that there are about 6 super moons each year.

A new or full moon which occurs with the moon at or near (within 90% of) its closest approach to Earth in a given orbit lead to formation of super moon. There are 4-6 Super moons a year on average.
The new moon or full moon has to come within 361,524 kilometers (224,641 miles) of our planet, as measured from the centers of the moon and Earth, in order to be considered a super moon.
All full moons (and new moons) combine with the sun to create larger-than-usual tides, but closer-than-average full moons (or closer-than-average new moons) elevate the tides even more. Spring tides accompany the super moons.


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